Abnormal Psych Exam 1

michelleburkee2's version from 2015-09-24 02:44

Section 1

Question Answer
How does the DSM5 define a psychological disorder? (4 things)behavioral, cognitive and emotional dysfunctions, unexpected in cultural context, personal distress, and substaintial impairment in function
presence of multiple motor and on or more vocal tics (eye blinking, neck jerking, shoulder shrugging, etc.)tourette syndrome
what did cliniticians think that tourette syndrome was initially?anxiety disorder
Anorexia Nervosarefusual to maintain body weight of at least 85% ideal body weight; fear of gaining weight
what is the primary focus in Annorexia Nervosa?control
up to the 12th century what was the belief of eating disorders?cases of annorexia were caused by demonic possession and treated with exorcism
13-16th centuries view of eating disordersholy annorexia involving food refusual. Because of religion.
17-18 centuries view of eating disordersyoung girls starved themselves to model themselves after medieval saints
19th century view of eating disorderscause believe to "brain" based. Frontal labotamies were used to treat annorexia.
who is the father of the lobotomy?Walter Freeman
what is a lobotomy?Neurologists used an ice pick like instrument with local anesthesia. took approximatley 10 minutes
how is treatment connected to etiology?attitudes about a disorder influence how we attempt to treat it
etiologywhat we think the cause of a disorder is
hydrotherapysubmerging in ice cold water
trephiningremoved circular areas of bone of the skull to "let the spirits out"
institutionalized patientpatient does not know how to function in society and would rather stay instititutionalized
When was hippocrates around?460 B.C.-377 B.C.
who was the first person that considered medical concepts with mental disorders rather than the divine as a cause? (1)Hippocrates (1)
Hippocrates made the doctorine of the four bodily humors. What are they?blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile.
blood cheerful and optimistic but can expierence unstable mood shifts
phlegmcalm under stress, but can be sluggish and indifferent
yellow bilea leader but can be irritable of bad tempered
black bilekind but is depressed
who had the humane treatment of change in the physical environment for a medical treatment? (2)Hippocrates (2)
what did Hippocrates think that hysteria was due to? a wandering uterus
who unchained patients in 1745? Pinel
who establisghed the York Retreat, where physicians were trained to treat patients with humanity and kindness thereby improving public opinion?Tuke
who seperated the mentally ill from being housed with common criminals?Dix
who wrote the book "a mind that found itself"Clifford Beers
did asylums have effectiveness in treatment?no they had little effectiveness.
when was the DSM-I published?in 1952
who published "Asylums" a detailed account of the neglect and maltreatment of mental health patientsGoffman
Hill-Burton Actfunding community mental health agencies
deinstitutionalization and community mental health care happened when?1970's
what were asylums replaced with in teh 1970's?community based care, day treatment, and outreach programs
what were main forces that lead to deinstitutionalization? miracle drugs, recognition or institutional hazards (isolation), respobsibility transferred from the state to private insitutions and federal gov., and reconceptualization of mental illness
did deinstitutionalization work?not exactly.
where did people with mental health issues end up after deinstituitonalization?homeless, group homes, jail, and nursing homes
what are negative rights?choice, autonomy, and independence
what are positive rights?choice, autonomy, independence WITH education, job training, placement
why did deinstittionilization not work?it focuses more on negative rights than positive rights
four theories of psychopathologybiological, psychoanalytic, behavioral, and humanistic
who was the American proponent of the biological tradition in 1850John Grey
what did John Grey believe about etiology (cause)?it is always phyisical
What are biological treatments of abnomal behavior?treatment as if they are physically ill
mental illness=physical illnessbiological theory
ECTelectroconvulsive therapy
who introduced ECT?Benjarmin Franklin
who introduced insulin shock therapy?Sakel
what were the biological treatments in the 1930's?insulin shock therapy, brain surgery, and ECT
what were the biological treatments in the 1950's?psychotropic medications, neuroleptics, and tranquilizers (MEDICATION)
Anton Mesmermesmerism and hypnosis (psychoanalytic theory)
Ben FranklinPower of suggestability argued against Mesmer's hypnosis. (psychoanalytic theory)
Jean Charcotused hypnosis as treatment; mentor to Freud (psychoanyltic theory)
Josef Breuerused hypnosis; collaborator with Freud "unconcious mind" (psychoanylitic theory)
Who did Id, Ego, and superego?Freud
What is part of the concious mind?Ego
What is part of the preconcious mind?Superego
What is part of the unconcious mind?Id
What is the Id?sex life, instinct, and the aggressive insinct.
What does the Id respond to?responds to instincts
Is the Id effected by reality, logic or the everyday world?no.
What is the Ego?the decision making component of personalit. Reality principle.
What is the Superego?moral principles, balances Id and ego.
What are defense mechanisms?Ego fights to stay on top of the Id and Superego. if you lose then you get anxiety and need to cope.
Displacement redirect anger on another person/ object
denialoutright refusal to admit or recognize that something has occurred or is currently occurring.
rationalizationcontroversial behaviors or feelings are justified and explained in a seemingly rational or logical manner to avoid the true explanation, and are made consciously tolerable
reaction formationpeople who appear to be dramatically and emphatically opposed to something in an effort to hide their true feelings or desires.
Projectioninvolves taking our own unacceptable qualities or feelings and ascribing them to other people.
what is this an example of: if you have a strong dislike for someone, you might instead believe that he or she does not like you.projection
Repressionacts to keep information out of conscious awareness.
sublimationallows us to act out unacceptable impulses by converting these behaviors into a more acceptable form
what is this an example of: a person experiencing extreme anger might take up kick-boxing as a means of venting frustration.sublimation
freudian slips are due tounconcious motivation
humanistic theory constructsintrinsic goodness, striving for self-actualization, "blocked" growth
person-centered therapyCarl Rogers
Hierarchy of NeedsAbraham Maslow
what are the hierarchy of needs in order?homeostasis, employment and rescources, friendship and family, self-esteem and confidence, morality
classical conditioning is a part of what?behavioral model theory
what is an example of classical conditioning?at first the dog salvates when it gets food and doesnt normally when it hears a whistle, but if it hears a whistle everytime before it eats then the dog will salvate if it just hears a whistle
who made classical conditioning?Ivan Pavlov
unconditioned stimulus examplefood
unconditioned responsesalvation
conditioned stimuluswhistle causes dog to salvate if it has been conditioned to eat food after it hears a whistle
conditioned responsesalvation
classical conditioning is apart of what theory?behaviorial
person centered therapy and hierarchy of needs are apart of what?humanistic
John B. Watson was a behaviroalist
little albert expiriment created a conditioned response for the child to be afraid of bunnies and santa clause

Section 2

Question Answer
Mary Cover Jones was a (1)behavioralist (1)
Joseph Wolpe was a (2)behavioralist (2)
systematic desentization is a part of behaviorism
who did systematic desensitilizationJoseph Wolpe
E.L Thorndike was a (3)behaviorist (3)
B.F. Skinner was a (4)behavioist (4)
Law of effect: consequences shape behaviorThorndike
behavior operates on evnironment, reinforcement and punishments=behavior shapingB.F. Skinner
3 roles of a practitoner in Scientist Practitioner Modelconsumer of new research findings, evalutaor of own interventions, reasearcher to produce new data
Boulder Conferencecame to the conclusion that clinical psychologist should receive training in both research and practice
who were the key figures in the S-P (scientist practitioner model)Shakow and Frederick Thorne
what is the difference between assesment and testing?assesment is a sum of tests that sums up the info. A test is a device or procedure to measure variables.
an Assement isintergrating data for the purpose of making a psychological evaluation
Mark never stops ranting about the dangers of pornography. He gives endless examples of smut he has seenreaction formation
Chad always teases and annoys his kid brother Nathan after he himself is bullied and picked on by his olderdisplacement
Judy, who has always been aggressive and fiercely competitive, becomes captain of her college soccer team.sublimation
Diane, who keeps accusing Sam ot being in love with her, probably has secret desires for Sam.projection
Despite overwhelming evidence and a murder conviction, Jay's mother refused to believe that her son coulddenial
Brett, who is extremely hard to convince in arguments, complains that all of his friends are stubborn.projection (2)
Even as a child Lisa was always impulsive and engaged in risky behavior. Perhaps not surprisingly, she grewsublimation (2)
Roger, a major league pncner, onen "beans" (r.e., hits with a pitch) the next batter after someone has hit adisplacement (2)
After an unsuccessful attempt at a sexual. reianonsrup, Pete began devoting most of his energies towardsublimation (3)
Wendy was embarrassed because somehow she kept forgetting to keep her appointments with the dentist.repression
Amanda broke off her relationship but Jack still talks and acts as if they are still dating.denial
After her new baby sister came nome from the hospital, her parents discovered that Susie had dismembereddisplacement
Linda, who has had many extramarital affairs, begins to accuse her husband Dan of being unfaithful.projection (3)
Larry began wetting his pants again a!l:er the birth of his baby brother.regression
Max, who is unsure about his own sexuainy, frequently makes homophobic and gay-bashing remarks.reaction formation
internal validityconfidence in the independent variable causing the dependent variable to change
external validitygeneralizing of results
Social validityinput from the person being treated or significant others
who did social validity?Montrose Wolf
Nature of the Case studyextensive observation and detailed description of a client; foundation for early developments in psychopathology
limitations of the case studylacks scientific rigor, internal validity is typically weak, mix ups
Nature of Correlationstatistical relation between two or more variables; no independent variable is manipulated
correlation does not mean __________causation
as people grow older they tend to have more sleep problems (graph goes up)positive correlation
as people grow older they tend to have less sleep problems (graph goes down)negative correlation
research in epidemiologylook at questions of prevalence and incidence; study of incidence, distribution and consequences of a particular problem or set of problems in one or more populations
Joseph Goldberger in the U.S.-pioneer in nutritional deficiency (discovered B vitamin deficiency in the poor) is an example of what type of researchepidemiological research
does a lot of suverysepidemiological research
comorbiditytwo or more mental illnesses occuring at the same time (i.e. anxiety and depression)
Most mental illness begins far __________ than believedearlier
treatment research isexpirimental
clinical trialexpiriment testing the efficacy of a chosen treatment
placebo controlin addition to a group of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham "placebo
double blind proceduresa placebo control test in which neither the patients or the clinician know who received the medication and who did not.
repeated measurementbehavior is measured several times before and after treatment
withdrawal designsstopping the treatment to determine if the problem behavior returns
multiple baselinestarting treament at different times across settings, behaviors, or people. Avoids withdrawal of treatment.
Cross sectional designstake a cross sectionn of the population across different age groups and compare them on some characterisitic. Use cohorts.
cohorts def.naturally formed or pre-existing groups
random assignment is ________ in cross-section designsimpossible.
example of cross sectional designpeople of different ages viewed at the same time (group of five year olds, group of 15 year olds, group of 25 year olds).
longitudinal desginfollowing one group over time
longitudinal design allows you to look at _______ changeindividual
answers how problems develop in individualslongitudinal design
problems with longitudinal designcostly, time consuming, can have limited generalizability- the "cross generational effect"
example of longitudinal designsame people followed across time
sequential designa combination of longitudinal and cross-sectional designs, by following several differently aged cohorts over time. With longitudinal, we look at one group over a long time. With cross-sectional, we look at a whole bunch of groups right now. With sequential, we look at a whole bunch of groups over time.
advantages of sequential designsdetects cohort effects, permits longitudinal and cross-sectional comparisons, is efficent
phenotypethe composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, phenology, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
genotypeA genotype is an individual's collection of genes.
endophenotypesunderlying genetic mechanisms to a disorder
probandfamily members with the trait or problem behavior

Section 3