A2 organic chem

ritvikmandyam's version from 2018-02-25 06:52

Reactions 1

Question Answer
R-OH --> R-CHO (Primary Alcohol --> Aldehyde)K2Cr2O7, Distil (Oxidation)
R-C(OH)-R --> R-CO-R (Secondary Alcohol --> Ketone)K2Cr2O7, RTP (Oxidation)
R-CHO --> R-OH (Aldehyde --> Primary Alcohol)LiAlH4, Dry Ether (Reduction)
R-CO-R --> R-C(OH)-R (Ketone --> Secondary Alcohol)LiAlH4, Dry Ether (Reduction)
R-CHO --> R-COOH (Aldehyde --> Carboxylic Acid)Acidified K2Cr2O7, Reflux (Oxidation)
R-COOH --> R-CHO (Carboxylic Acid --> Aldehyde)LiAlH4, Dry Ether (Reduction)
R-COOH --> R-CO-R' (Carboxylic Acid --> Ester)Alcohol, Heat with Acid Catalyst (Esterification) [Alcohol + Carboxylic Acid --> (Alcohol)yl (Carb. Acid)oate] {Additional Products: Water}
R-CO-R' --> R-COOH + R'-OH (Ester --> Carboxylic Acid + Alcohol)Water, Strong Acid <HCl> (Hydrolysis)
R-OH --> R-X (Alcohol --> Halogenoalkane)Hydrogen Halide <HX>, RTP (Nucleophilic substitution)
R-X --> R-OH (Halogenoalkane --> Alcohol)Alkali <NaOH/KOH>, Reflux (Nucleophilic substitution)

Reactions 2

Question Answer
R-OH --> R-C=C-R' (Alcohol --> Alkene)Al2O3, RTP (Dehydration)
R-C=C-R' --> R-OH (Alkene --> Alcohol)Steam <H2O>, Heated Phosphoric Acid Catalyst under Pressure (Hydration)
R-C=C-R' --> R-X (Alkene --> Halogenoalkane)Hydrogen Halide <HX>, RTP (Electrophilic Addition)
R-C=C-R' --> R-C-C-R' (Alkene --> Alkane)Hydrogen, Heat under Pressure with Nickel Catalyst (Electrophilic Addition)
R-X --> R-NH2 (Halogenoalkane --> Amine)Ammonia in Alcohol, RTP (Nucleophilic Substitution)
C6H6 --> C6H5-X (Benzene --> Aryl Halide)Molecular Halide <X>, AlCl3/FeBr3 Catalyst (Electrophilic Substitution)
C6H6 --> C6H5-NO2 (Benzene --> Nitrobenzene)conc. H2SO4 and conc. HNO3, Reflux (Electrophilic Substitution)
C6H6 --> C6H5-R (Benzene --> Alkyl Benzene)Alkyl Chloride <RCl>, Reflux with Anhydrous AlCl3 Catalyst (Electrophilic Substitution)
C6H6 --> C6H5-R-CO (Benzene --> Acyl Benzene)Acyl Chloride <RCOCl>, Reflux with Anhydrous AlCl3 Catalyst (Electrophilic Substitution)
C6H6 --> C6H12 (Benzene --> Cyclohexane)Hydrogen, Heat under Pressure with Nickel Catalyst (Electrophilic Addition)

Reactions 3

Question Answer
C6H5-R --> C6H5-R-Cl (Alkyl Benzene --> Chloroalkyl Benzene)Cl2, UV Light [Excess Cl2 --> Mixture of Di-, Trichloroalkyl Benzene] (Free Radical Substitution) {Additional Products: HCl}
C6H5-R --> C6H5-COOH (Alkyl Benzene --> Benzoic Acid)KMnO4, Reflux (Oxidation) {Additional Products: Water}
C6H5-X --> C6H5-OH (Haloarene --> Phenol)NaOH, Heat under Pressure (Nucleophilic Substitution) {Additional Products: Sodium salt <Na-X>}
C6H5-OH --> C6H5O-Na+ (Phenol --> Salt)aqueous NaOH, RTP [Strong Acid <HA> + Salt <C6H5O+X-> --> C6H5OH + XA] (Neutralisation) {Additional Products: Water}
C6H5-OH --> C6H5O+M- (Phenol --> Salt)Solid Metal, RTP (N/A) {Additional products: H2}
C6H5-OH --> C6H3Br3-OH (Phenol --> Tribromophenol)aqueous Bromine, RTP (Electrophilic Substitution) {Additional Products: HBr}
C6H5-OH --> C6H4(NO2)-OH + C6H5(NO2)-OH (Phenol --> 2-Nitrophenol + 4-Nitrophenol)dilute HNO3, RTP [conc. HNO3 --> 2,4,6-Trinitrophenol] (Electrophilic Substitution)
R-COOH --> R-CO-Cl (Carboxylic Acid --> Acyl Chloride)SOCl2, RTP (N/A) {Additional Products: Sulphur Dioxide <SO2>, HCl}
R-CO-Cl --> R-COOH (Acyl Chloride --> Carboxylic Acid)Water, RTP (Nucleophilic Addition/Elimination) {Additional Products: HCl(g)}
R-CO-Cl --> RCOO-Na+ (Acyl Chloride --> Acid salt)NaOH, RTP (Nucleophilic Addition/Elimination) {Additional Products: Water, Sodium Chloride <NaCl>}

Reactions 4

Question Answer
R-CO-Cl --> R-CO-NH2 (Acyl Chloride --> Primary Amine)Ammonia <NH3>, RTP (Nucleophilic Addition/Elimination) {Additional Products: HCl)
R-CO-Cl --> R-CO-NH-R' (Acyl Chloride --> Secondary Amine)Alkylamine <R'-NH2>, RTP (Nucleophilic Addition/Elimination) {Additional Products: HCl}
R-CO-Cl --> R-CO-OR (Acyl Chloride --> Ester)Aliphatic Alcohol <R-OH>/Phenol <C6H5-OH>, RTP (Nucleophilic Addition/Elimination)
R-CN --> R-CH2NH2 (Nitrile --> Primary Amine)H2, LiAlH4 in Dry Ether (Reduction)
R-CO-NH2 --> R-CH2NH2 (Primary Amide --> Primary Amine)H2, LiAlH4 in Dry Ether (Reduction) {Additional Products: Water}
C6H5-NO2 --> C6H5-NH2 (Nitrobenzene --> Phenylamine)conc. HCl with Tin, Heat (Reduction) {Additional Products: Water}
C6H5-NH2 --> C6H3(Br3)-NH2 (Phenylamine --> Tribromophenylamine)aqueous Bromine, RTP (Electrophilic Substitution) {Additional Products: HBr}
C6H5-NH2 --> C6H5-N2+Cl- (Phenylamine --> Benzene Diazonium Chloride)Nitrous Acid <NaNO2 and excess HCl>, Temperature <= 5 Celsius (Diazotization)
C6H5-N2+Cl- --> C6H5-N2-C6H4(R)-OH/C6H5-N2-C6H4(R)-NH2 (Benzene Diazonium Chloride --> Azodye)Alkylphenol <C6H4(R)-OH>/Alkylphenylamine <C6H4(R)-NH2>, RTP (Electrophilic Substitution) {Additional Products: HCl(g)}
R-CO-NH-R' --> R-COOH + R'-NH2 (Secondary Amide --> Carboxylic Acid + Primary Amine)Strong Acid <HCl>, Reflux [Excess Acid <HCl> + Primary Amine <R'-NH2> --> Salt <R'-NH3Cl>] (Hydrolysis)
R-CO-NH-R' --> R-COO-Na+ + R'-NH2 (Secondary Amide --> Acid Salt + Primary Amine)Strong Alkali <NaOH>, Reflux (Hydrolysis)


Question Answer
Alkene <R-C=C-R'> + Potassium Manganate <KMnO4>Purple --> Colourless [Alkene <R-C=C-R'> --> Diol <R-C(OH)2-R'>]
Alkene <R-C=C-R'> + Bromine Water <Br2(aq)>Brown --> Colourless [Alkene + Bromine + Hydroxide Group --> Bromoalcohol]
Primary/Secondary Alcohol <R-OH> + Potassium Dichromate <K2Cr2O7>Orange --> Green [Dichromate --> Chromium Ions]
Tertiary Alcohol <R-OH> + Potassium Dichromate <K2Cr2O7>No Reaction
Chloroalkane <R-Cl> + Silver Nitrate <AgNO3> + Potassium Hydroxide <KOH>Colourless --> White [Chlorine <Cl2> + Silver <Ag> --> Silver Chloride <AgCl>]
Bromoalkane <R-Br> + Silver Nitrate <AgNO3> + Potassium Hydroxide <KOH>Colourless --> Cream [Bromine <Br2> + Silver <Ag> --> Silver Bromide <AgBr>]
Iodoalkane <R-I> + Silver Nitrate <AgNO3> + Potassium Hydroxide <KOH>Colourless --> Yellow [Iodine <I2> + Silver <Ag> --> Silver Iodide <AgI>]
Aldehyde <R-CHO> + Fehling's Solution <CuSO4(aq) + NaOH(aq)> + HeatBlue --> Red [Copper Sulphate <CuSO4> --> Copper (I) Oxide <Cu2O>]
Ketone <R-CO-R'> + Fehling's Solution <CuSO4(aq) + NaOH(aq)> + HeatNo Reaction
Aldehyde <R-CHO> + Tollen's Reagent + HeatSilver Mirror Inside Tube
Ketone <R-CO-R'> + Tollen's Reagent + HeatNo Reaction
Carboxylic Acid <R-COOH> + Sodium Carbonate <Na2CO3>Effervescence. Gas forms white ppt. with lime water. [Liberated Carbon Dioxide <CO2> + Lime Water <Ca(OH)2> --> Calcium Carbonate <CaCO3> + Water <H2O>]
Protons <H+> + Universal IndicatorIndicator turns red
Copper <Cu2+> + Ammonium Hydroxide <NH4OH>Light Blue Ppt [Dropwise] / Deep Blue Solution [Excess]
Iron(II) <Fe2+> + Sodium Hydroxide <NaOH>Green Ppt
Iron(III) <Fe3+> + Sodium Hydroxide <NaOH>Brown Ppt
Zinc(II) <Zn2+> + Sodium Hydroxide <NaOH>White Ppt [Dropwise] / Colourless [Excess]
Ammonium <NH4+> + Sodium Hydroxide <NaOH>Gas liberated which gives white fumes with conc. HCl
Aluminum <Al3+> + Sodium Hydroxide <NaOH>White Ppt [Dropwise] / Colourless [Excess]