What happens to electromagnetic radiation from the Sun?
Electromagnetic radiation from the Sun is absorbed and some is released back into the atmposhere as longer wave infrared radiation.
What happens to most infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface? However?
Most infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface goes back into space. However, certain gases in the atmosphere absorb some of this infrared radiation. It is then re-emitted as energy with some passing back towards the Earth. This traps heat in the lower atmosphere.
Where do greenhouse gases occur and what are the three main ones?
Greenhouse gases occur naturally in the atmosphere. Water vapour, methane, and carbon dioxide
Where does water vapour come from?
From evaporation of lakes and oceans - it is the most abundant greenhouse gas.
Where does carbon dioxide come from?
Carbon dioxide comes from volcanis eruptions, respiration of animals, and burning or decay of organic matter such as plants. 2nd most abundant
Where does methane come from?
Methane is released from certain animals, such as cows. It is emitted during coal production. It is a product of rotting organic waste. 3rd most abundant
What bonds is infrared radiation absorbed by and what does this contribute to and why?
Infrared radiation is absorbed by C=O,O-H and C-H bonds in water, carbon dioxide and methane, and these absorptions contribute to global warming. Absorptions cause the molecule to vib - eventually, the vibrating molecule emits some of this energy in the form of radiation
What does the greenhouse effect of a gas depend on?
The greenhouse effect of a gas depends not only on its concentration in the atmosphere but also on its ability to absorb infrared radiation.
Wind Turbines. Tidal power. Solar panels. Nuclear plants.
What are BP developing in Scotland?
In Scotland, BP is developing the world's first industrial project to create decarbonised fuels, resulting in a reduction of co2 emissions of about 90%
Talk me through carbon capture and storage (CCS)
Captures carbon dioxide from power stations and stores it away safely, instead of it being released into the atmosphere. This is an immediate strategy - not long term. Old oil and gas fields are some of the best natural containers of co2. Even when these fields have been filled with c02 the UK has other porous rocks capable of storing up to 500 years worth of co2 production.
What does mineral storage aim to do?
Mineral storage aims to store carbon in stable minerals - co2 would be trapped by converting it into a carbonate rock. The co2 is reacting with metal oxides to produce stable carbonates. This process occurs naturally but the natural reaction is very slow and more research is required if mineral storage is to become a viable form of CCS
Ozone, O3, is continuously being formed and broken in the stratosphere by the action of UV radiation.
What is the 1st step in the formation of ozone?
The first step in the formation of ozone is the absorption of UV radiation with a wavelength less than 240nm by O2 molecules. This is high-energy radiation, capable of breaking an oxygen molecule into two oxygen atoms. The O atoms then react with O2 molecules to form ozone molecules, O3. This process generates heat. O2 + ) _> O3 + heat. The heat is absorbed by air molecules in the stratosphere, raising its temperature.
What does the internal combustion in a moder car emit?
The internal combustion engine in a modern car emits carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides
What is carbon monoxide and what is it emitted from?
Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas, emitted from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds.
How long can carbon monoxide molecules exist for?
Carbon monoxide molecules can exist for about a month in the environment before being oxidised to carbon dioxide.
What happens during the burning of fuels in the internal combustion engine?
During the burning of fuels in the internal combustion engine, air is drawn into the cyclinder along with the fuel. The fuel is burned in the prescence of oxygen, generating energy. Nitrogen oxides are also produced - nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen monoxide.
What do nitrogen dioxide's environmental impacts include?
Nitrogen dioxide's environmental impacts include the formation of low level ozone.
What happens to a lot of the nitrogen dioxide released into the atmosphere?
Much of the nitrogen dioxide released into the atmosphere is converted into nitric acid, a contributor to acid rain
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released in vehicle exhaust gases, usually from unburnt fuels.
What happens in the atmosphere?
In the atmosphere, the unburnt hydrocarbons and nitrogen dioxide react together to form low-level ozone. Low-level ozone is a serious pollutant, causing breathing difficulties and increasing susceptibilty to infections
What has been fitted to cars?
A catalytic converter had been fitted to cars
How does a catalytic converter work?
The catalyst provides a surface upon which the reaction takes place. The CO and NO molecules diffuse over the catalytic surface of the metal. Some of the molecules are held on to the metal surface by ADSORPTION. Temporary bonds are formed between the catalytic surface and the gas molecules. These bonds hold the gas molecules in the correct position on the metal surface, where they react together. After the reaction, the co2 and n2 products are DESORBED from the surface and diffuse away from the catalytic surface.