A&P2 week 4 Respiratory system

winniesmith1's version from 2017-03-13 03:08

Section 1

Question Answer
What is the primary function of the respiratory systemget oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide
5 functions of the respiratory system1. Provides extensive gas exchange surface area between air and circulating blood
2. Moves air to and from exchange surfaces of lungs
3. Protects respiratory surfaces from outside environment
4. Produces sounds
5. Participates in olfactory sense
What is the hiluma groove that allows passage of the primary bronchi, pulmonary vessels, nerves and lymphatics.
Where are they locatedleft and right pleural cavities. Inferior portion of each lung rests on the superior surface of diaphragm.
Lobes of the right lung3 lobes. Has oblique (between superior and inferior lobe) and horizontal (between superior and middle) fissure.
Lobes of the left lung2 lobes. Has cardiac notch- too accommodate the pericardial cavity. Oblique fissure. Groove for aorta.

Section 2

Question Answer
Cardiac notch and lung blood vesselsx
Relationship between lungs and heartx
Shape of right lungwider. displaced upward by liver
Shape of left lunglonger. displaced leftward by the heart forming. Has cardiac notch.

Section 3

Question Answer
The bronchial tree- how is it formedPrimary bronchi and their branches.
Extrapulmonary bronchi (left and right bronchi branches outside the lungs)
Intrapulmonary bronchi (branches within lungs)
Primary bronchus- what does it formBranches to form secondary bronchi (lobar bronchi). 1 secondary bronchus goes to each lobe
Secondary bronchiBranch to form tertiary bronchi, also called segmental bronchi.
Tertiary/segmental bronchiEach segmental bronchus: supplies air to a single bronchopulmonary segment.
Bronchopulmonary segmentsRight lung= 10
Left lung= 8 or 9
Bronchial structureThe walls of primary, secondary, and tertiary bronchi:
– contain progressively less cartilage and more smooth muscle
– increasing muscular effects on airway constriction and resistance.
bronchitisInflammation of bronchial walls:
causes constriction and breathing difficulty.

Section 4

Question Answer
upper respiratory systemAbove larynx (anatomical positions)
lower respiratory systemfrom the larynx down
The respiratory tract is split intoconducting portion and respiratory portion (transport/physiology)
Conduction portionfrom nasal cavity to terminal bronchioles
Respiratory portionthe respiratory bronchioles and alveoli

Section 5

Question Answer
The upper respiratory systemlots of cartilage structures
The nose- air enters the respiratory systemthrough the nostrils (or external nares) into nasal vestibule.
Nasal hairsin the nasal vestibule.
are the first particle filtration system
The nasal cartilage and external landmarks on the noseDorsum nasi and nasal cartilages. Apex=tip of nose.
The nasal septumdivides the nasal cavity into left and right
Mucous secretions from paranasal sinus and tears do whatclean and moisten the nasal cavity
What is the superior portion of the nasal cavity the olfactory region: provides sense of smell

Section 6

Question Answer
Air flow goes fromvestibule to internal nares: through superior, middle and inferior meatuses.
Nasal cavity opens in nasopharynx through internal nares.
what are meatuses/conchaeconstricted passageways that produce air turbulence- warm and humidify incoming air and trap particles.
The palatesHard and soft palates
Hard palates– forms floor of nasal cavity
– separates nasal and oral cavities
Soft palates– extends posterior to hard palate
– divides superior nasopharynx from lower pharynx.
Nasal mucosa• Warm and humidify inhaled air for arrival at lower respiratory organs
• Breathing through mouth bypasses this important step

Section 7

Question Answer
The pharynx is-a chamber shared by digestive and respiratory systems.
-extends from internal nares to entrances to larynx and esophagus
Divisions of the pharynxNasopharynx
Nasopharynx• Superior portion of the pharynx
• Contains pharyngeal tonsils and openings to left and right auditory tubes.
Oropharynx• Middle portion of the pharynx
• Communicates with oral cavity
laryngopharynx• Inferior portion of the pharynx
• Extends from hyoid bone to entrance to larynx and esophagus

Section 8

Question Answer
What is the larynx/Anatomy of the larynxa cartilaginous structure that surrounds the glottis (or voice box) /anatomy on picture
Cartilages of the larynx3 large, unpaired cartilages form the larynx:

– the thyroid cartilage
– the cricoid cartilage
– the epiglottis
Thyroid cartilages• Also called the Adam’s apple
• Is a hyaline cartilage
• Forms anterior and lateral walls of larynx
• Ligaments attach to hyoid bone, epiglottis, and laryngeal cartilages
Cricoid cartilage• Is a hyaline cartilage
• Form posterior portion of larynx
• Ligaments attach to first tracheal cartilage
• Articulates with arytenoid cartilages
Epiglottis• Composed of elastic cartilage
• Ligaments attach to thyroid cartilage and hyoid bone
Cartilage functionsThyroid and cricoid cartilages support and protect:

– the glottis
– the entrance to trachea
3 pairs of small hyaline cartilages of the larynx /function– arytenoid cartilages
– corniculate cartilages
– cuneiform cartilages.

Corniculate and arytenoid cartilages function in:
-opening and closing of glottis.
-production of sound
Cartilage functions• During swallowing:
– the larynx is elevated
– the epiglottis folds back over glottis

• Prevents entry of food and liquids into respiratory tract.

Section 9

Question Answer
Ligaments of the larynxVestibular ligaments and vocal ligaments:

– extend between thyroid cartilage and arytenoid cartilages
– are covered by folds of laryngeal epithelium that project into glottis.
Vestibular ligaments• Lie within vestibular folds:
– which protect delicate vocal folds
Sound productionAir passing through glottis:

– vibrates vocal folds
– produces sound waves
sound modification• Sound is varied by:
– tension on vocal folds
– voluntary muscles (position arytenoid cartilage relative to thyroid cartilage)
speechIs produced by:

– phonation: •sound production at the larynx

– articulation: •modification of sound by other structures
The laryngeal musculature• The larynx is associated with:

– muscles of neck and pharynx

– intrinsic muscles that:

•control vocal folds
•open and close glottis

Section 10

Question Answer
Anatomy of the trachea ** look at diagram
The trachea• Also called the windpipe

• Extends from the cricoid cartilage into mediastinum

– where it branches into right and left pulmonary bronchi
Submucosa• Beneath mucosa of trachea

• Contains mucous glands
Tracheal cartilages15–20 tracheal cartilages:

– strengthen and protect airway

– discontinuous where trachea contacts esophagus

• Ends of each tracheal cartilage are connected by:

– an elastic ligament and trachealis muscle
The primary bronchiRight and left primary bronchi:

– separated by an internal ridge (the carina)
right primary bronchusIs larger in diameter than the left

• Descends at a steeper angle
Structure of primary bronchiEach primary bronchus:

– travels to a groove (hilus) along medial surface of the lung

Section 11

Question Answer
HilusWhere pulmonary nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatics enter lung

• Anchored in meshwork of connective tissue
The root of the lung• Complex of connective tissues, nerves, and vessels in hilus:
– anchored to the mediastinum
The respiratory tract• Consists of a conducting portion:
– from nasal cavity to terminal bronchioles

• Consists of a respiratory portion:
– the respiratory bronchioles and alveoli
The bronchioles• Each tertiary bronchus branches into multiple bronchioles
Terminal bronchiolesBronchioles branch into terminal bronchioles:

– 1 tertiary bronchus forms about 6500 terminal bronchioles
Bronchiole structureBronchioles:

– have no cartilage
– are dominated by smooth muscle
Nervous systemAutonomic control:
Regulates smooth muscle:
– controls diameter of bronchioles
– controls airflow and resistance in lungs

Section 12

Question Answer
Bronchodilation• Dilation of bronchial airways
• Caused by sympathetic ANS activation
• Reduces resistance
Bronchoconstriction• Constricts bronchi

• Caused by:
– parasympathetic ANS activation
– histamine release (allergic reactions)
Asthma• Excessive stimulation and bronchoconstriction

• Stimulation severely restricts airflow
relax**you got this

Section 13

Question Answer
AlveoliAre air-filled pockets within the lungs

– where all gas exchange takes place
Alveolar organizationRespiratory bronchioles are connected to alveoli along alveolar ducts
• Alveolar ducts end at alveolar sacs:
– common chambers connected to many individual alveoli
Alveolar epithelium• Consists of simple squamous epithelium

• Consists of thin, delicate Type I cells

• Patrolled by alveolar macrophages, also called dust cells

• Contains septal cells (Type II cells) that produce surfactant
alveolar macrophagesdust cells
An alveolus• Has an extensive network of capillaries
• Is surrounded by elastic fibers

Section 14

Question Answer
The respiratory epithelium• For gases to exchange efficiently:
– alveoli walls must be very thin (< 1 µm)
what is the surface area of the alveoli– surface area must be very great (about 35 times the surface area of the body)
Respiratory muscosa• Consists of:

– an epithelial layer

– an areolar layer

• Lines conducting portion of respiratory system
Lamina propria• Underlies areolar tissue

• In the upper respiratory system, trachea, and bronchi:
– contains mucous glands that secrete onto epithelial surface

• In the conducting portion of lower respiratory system:
– contains smooth muscle cells that encircle lumen of bronchioles

Section 15

Question Answer
identify structures on diagramswhere are they located relative to each other. chp.23