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A&P2 Reproductive system

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winniesmith1's version from 2017-05-20 11:22

Section 1

Question Answer
what is sexsex is fun, sex is a battle of sperm to reach the egg- biological
why do we have sexreproduction- population and variation. sex for pleasure.
what is gender?is a social construct, the 'sex' you identify as - NOT based on biology. A spectrum (not just male or female) a range of expressions (not by body parts), how you relate to yourself (not sexual orientation), gender is a personal identity (not determined by chromosmes).
Describe gender in some tribesoften have 3 genders, such as the 2 spirit people, or people born one sex but embracing the life of the other gender.
what percentage of births are intersexual1.7%
when do we become boy or girl7-8weeks anatomically for males and 8-9 for female.
model of sox9 regulation for sex maintenance *male express sox9 , females do not *
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Section 2

Question Answer
Embryologically- stagemales and females start out “sexually indifferent”
-Gonads, ducts and externally identical structures
-At 5 weeks gestation changes start to take place
puberty -stagereproductive organs grow to adult size and reproduction becomes possible
-10-12 girls; 12-14 boys.
-Influence of rising levels of gonadal hormones:
Testosterone in males,
Estrogen in females
female menopause- stage(between 46 and 54):
Cessation of ovulation. End of fertility
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Question Answer
Irregular sexual differentiationmismatch of chromosomes and external/ internal characteristics
Testicular feminisation- what is androgen insensitivity syndromeXY genotype. Tissue insensitivity to androgens.

Regression of mesonephric ducts.

Development of female external genitalia.
Testicular feminisation- outcomeChromosomal sex = male.
Gonadal sex = male (testes).
External phenotype = female.
No internal female or male genitalia
Androgenitial syndromeXX genotype.

Hyperactive foetal adrenal glands -> development of mesonephric ducts + male external genitalia.
Androgenitial syndrome- outcomeGenetically female.
Female gonads, male external genitalia.
Internal genitalia of male and female (hermaphrodite).

Sex determination at birth – sometimes ambiguous. Parents/doctors “can” choose!!!.
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Section 3

Question Answer
The female reproductive systemProduces sex hormones and functional gametes.

Protects and supports developing embryo.

Nourishes newborn infant.
Cyclic changes: menstrual cycleProduction of gametes (ova, or eggs).

Preparation for support of developing embryo during pregnancy.

Cyclic changes: menstrual cycle:
Averages 28 days.
Complex interplay between hormones and organs: at level of brain, ovaries and uterus.
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Question Answer
Gonads- the ovaries-Paired, almond-shaped, flanking the uterus in lateral wall of pelvis.
-3 x 1.5 x 1 cm in size
where are the ovariesthe ovaries are retroperitoneal,but surrounded by peritoneal cavity.
Held in place by mesentery and ligaments:
Broad ligament
Suspensory ligament of the ovary
Ovarian ligament

Innervation:
Sympathetic and parasympathetic
function of the ovaries-Production of immature female
gametes (oocytes).

-Secretion of hormones
structure of the ovary-Fibrous capsule is called tunica albuginea.
-Outer cortex houses developing gametes the oocytes, within follicles.
-Inner medulla is loose connective tissue with largest vessels and nerves.
ovarian follicles-Ovarian follicles are the basic units of female reproductive biology.
-Each of which is composed of roughly spherical aggregations of cells found in the ovary.
-They contain a single oocyte (immature ovum or egg).
what is the ovarian cycle made up ofThe follicular phase, ovulation phase and luteal phase
Describe the follicular phase-1st approx 14 days but variable
-Egg develops in a follicle
-Stimulated by FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone
-Estrogen produced
Describe ovulation phase-Egg released from follicle (LH, Luteinizing hormone surge)
-Egg in abdominal cavity
-Picked up by fimbria of fallopian tube
-Not necessarily halfway point
Describe the luteal phase-Postovulatory phase 14 days (more constant)
-Corpus luteum develops from exploded follicle
-Produces progesterone as well as estrogen:
Progesterone stimulates uterus to be ready for baby.
-If no pregnancy, corpus luteum degenerates into corpus albicans. Shedding of the uterus lining
Sex/gender selection by timing of conception-Y sperm = faster swimmers.
-For boys – intercourse at time of ovulation.

-X sperm = slow swimmers, longer lived, prefers acid pH.
-For girls – intercourse before ovulation.
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Section 4

Question Answer
what is the corpus luteumLatin for "yellow body" (plural corpora lutea) is a temporary endocrine structure in female mammals that is involved in the production of relatively high levels of progesterone and moderate levels of estradiol and inhibin A.

Essential for establishing and maintaining pregnancy in females. The corpus luteum secretes progesterone, which is a steroid hormone responsible for the decidualization of the endometrium (its development) and its maintenance.
What is the first day of the cyclethe first day of menstruation
hormonal regulation of the female reproductive cycleOvarian hormones- peak of estrogen and inhibin at ovulation stage. Progesterone slowly increases but peaks half way through luteal phase.

Gonadotropic hormones- LH and FSH both peak in ovulation phase.
ice cream breakyaaaayy
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Section 5

Question Answer
spermatogenesisAll stages of meiosis are seen within the seminiferous tubules. (mitosis>meiosis>spermiogenesis).
Spermiogenesis- physical maturation of spermatids.
Seminiferous tubuleslocated in the testes. location of spermatogenesis.
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Question Answer
hormonal regulation of male reproductive cycle
the male reproductive systemmainly outside body. To become a male you need Y chromosome (SRY gene)--> testis determining factor (TDF) --> Testosterone+androgens+ Mullerian inhibiting hormone (MIH).
Absence of Y chromosome, or lack of male steroids--> female genitalia.
the male gonadsin embryo: first develop in posterior abdominal wall, then migrate to an external position. Internal body temp. too hot for viable sperm.
why is the male reproductive system mainly outside the bodyto keep them cool - sperm sensitive to temperature increase
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Section 6

Question Answer
female fertilitymenarche and menopause
primary amenorrheaFailure to initiate menses.
9- 6 years is normal range
transient secondary amenorrheainterruption of 6 months of more. Caused by physical or emotional stresses
viabilitySperm- 24-72 hours.
Ovum- 12-24 hours
factors affecting sperm motility-Cervical mucus, pH, X or Y sperm.
-Mortality of sperm.
-Of 300 million per ejaculation, 25% abnormal, 75% motile
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Section 7

Question Answer
when is peak fertility24 years of age
when is sperm count clinically infertile<20 million
regular intercourse without contraception-25% conceive within first month
-60% within 6 months
-90% within 18 months
foetal origins of health and disease the first 9 months shape the rest of your life
intergenerational influences hypothesis‘those factors, conditions, exposures and environments experienced by one generation that relate to the health, growth and development of the next generation’ (Emanuel 1986).
memorize