A&P Wk10 Articulations

winniesmith's version from 2016-12-15 00:23

Section 1

Question Answer
What are articulations Where two (or more) bones connect
What are the functions of joints Allow movement and stability
what is functional classification (FC) (SAD)how much movement it allowss
(FC) SynarthrosisImmovable joint. Close/interlocked surfaces joined with fibres, cartilage or bone.
(FC) Amphiarthrosis Slightly movable joint, Surfaces connected by collagen fibres or cartilage
(FC) DiarthrosisFreely movable joint, Synovial joint- more complex structure.
Types of movement Gliding movement, Angular movement, Circumduction, Rotation.
What is monoaxial movementmovement in one plane. e.g.elbow.
What is diaxial movement movement in two planes e.g. wrist
What is triaxial movementmovement in three planes e.g. shoulder.

Section 2

Question Answer
Cicumduction Circular motion without rotation, Combination of flexion/extension and abduction/ adduction
Rotation Defined by direction relative to longitudinal axis of body: Left or right rotation, Medial rotation (Toward axis), Lateral rotation (Away from axis)
Pronation Radius crosses over ulna, Turns palm to face posteriorly
Supination To anatomical position, Turns palm to face anteriorly
Inversion (foot)Twist sole medially
Eversion (foot)Twist sole laterally
Opposition (hhn)Thumb movement to fingers
Reposition (hhn)Opposite of opposition
Retraction (hhn)Opposite of protraction
Protraction (head hand neck)Anterior motion in horizontal plane
Elavation (hhn)Motion in superior direction
Depression (hhn)Motion in inferior direction
Lateral flexion (hhn)Bending vertebral column laterally
Dorsiflexion (foot)Flexion at ankle, Raise toes
Plantar flexion (foot)Extension at ankle. Pointing toes

Section 3

Question Answer
what are the different structures of joints Bony fusion, Fibrous, Cartilaginous, Synovial
Bone joint: Synostosissynarthrosis, articulating bones fused (joint between left and right frontal bone)
Fibrous joint: Suturesynarthrosis, Articulating bones interlock and attached by collagen fibres (eg sutures in cranium)
Fibrous joint: Gomphosissynarthrosis, Tooth fits in socket attached by ligament (eg. Joints between teeth and jaws)
Fibrous joint: SyndesmosisAmphiarthosis, Bones connected by ligament (eg. joint between tibia and fibula)
Cartilaginous joint: Synchondrosissynarthrosis, bones attached by cartilage (eg.costal cartilage)
Cartilaginous joint: Symphysis Amphiarthosis, bones separated by fibrocartilage disk (pubic symphysis)
Synovial joint: Synovial Diarthrosis. cartilage, synovual fluid and joint capsule. (Typically found at ends of long bones e.g. knee)

Section 4

Question Answer
*(learn diagram) Features of a typical synovial joint Articular cartilage, Synovial fluid, Joint capsule.
features of articular cartilageSmooth covering, Prevents bone touching, Reduces friction
features of synovial fluidHigh protein content , (proteoglycans) Secreted by fibroblasts.Functions: Lubrication,Nutrient distribution, Shock absorption
features of joint capsule Fibrous connective tissue, Synovial membrane: Layer of cells
Joint accessory structures Cartilages, fat pads, ligaments, tendons, bursae
What does the cartilage doCushion the joint: E.g. meniscus – fibrocartilage pad in knee
what do fat pads do Superficial, Provide protection
what do ligaments doSupport, strengthen joint
what do tendons doAttach to muscles, Help support joint
what do bursae do Pockets of synovial fluid, Cushion where tendons or ligaments rub
#types of synovial joint according to articulating bone shapeGliding (slight), Hinge (monoaxial), pivot (monoaxial rotation), Condylar (biaxial), saddle (biaxial)(base of first carpo-metacarpal joint), Ball and socket (triaxial)
*what are menisciaccessory structures of synovial joints. pad of fibrocartilage

Section 5

Question Answer Column 3
(*learn diagram pgs 27-29) what are intervertebral articulations (C2 to L5) made of?1. Intervertebral discs: >Fibrocartilage pads (symphyses) >Annulus fibrosis: Outer fibrous layer >Nucleus pulposus: Elastic core 2. Articular processesGliding joints 3. Intervertebral ligaments
Damage to intervertebral discsdistorted intervertebral disc (a “slipped” disc), (looks like a balloon bulge-the release of the nucleus pulposus and its effect on the spinal cord and adjacent spinal nerves )
*look up structure and function of each joint) (pgs 29-30) structure Shoulder (Glenohumeral) joint Glenoid labrum: Fibrocartilage ring, Deepens cavity. Ligaments . Rotator cuff muscles. Bursae (prevents friction).
(pg 31) structure of hip joint deep cup shaped socket (stable joint but less movement). Head of femur articulates with deep acetabulum. Acetabular labrum deepens cavity. Strong joint capsule reinforced by a number of ligaments.
(pg 32) the elbow Hinge joint. Articulations: >Humeroulnar: Trochlea (humerus) with trochlear notch (ulna) >Humeroradial: Capitulum (humerus) with head of radius. Ligaments
(pg 33) the kneeComplex hinge. Articulations: >Two femur-tibia joints: Medial and lateral condyles, Medial and lateral menisci. >Patella-patellar surface of femur. Ligaments: Patellar, Popliteal (x2), Anterior and posterior cruciate, Tibial and fibular collateral ligaments. Bursae. Fat pads.
role of medial and lateral collateral ligamentsprovides lateral stability when joint is extended.

Section 6

Question Answer
What are the different types of injuries. Sprain, dislocation, subluxation.
what is a SprainTearing of ligament fibres.
what is dislocation (luxation)>Articulating surfaces displaced, >Damages articular cartilage, ligaments, joint capsule.
what is subluxation Partial dislocation.
Joint diseasesosteoarthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Gouty arthritis.
OsteoarthritisOnce viewed as “wear and tear”- no longer, Damage to articular cartilage and underlying bone, More common with age, obesity and injury, Inflammatory condition.
Rheumatoid arthritis Autoimmune condition, Inflammation of articular cartilage
Gouty arthritis Deposition of crystals in joint as a results of metabolic disorder (gout)