A&P WEEK 9 Skeletal Anatomy. Part 1

winniesmith's version from 2017-01-06 16:21

Section 1

Question Answer
Terms for a process which articulates with adjacent boneshead,condyle, trochlea
Term for a ditchfossa,sulcus

Section 2

Question Answer
2 types of skeletonAxial and Appendicular
What is in the axial skeletonSkull and associated bones, thoracic cage, vertebral column.
What is in the appendicular skeletonPectoral girdle, upper limbs, pelvic girdle, lower limbs.
What are the bones of the skull divided intoCranium and facial bones
#What are the cranium bonesFrontal bone (Forehead, superior surface of orbits) Parietal bones (Sides, roof) Occipital bone (Foramen magnum) Temporal bones- includes structures of ear, acoustic canal and part of cheek bone (Sides, base) Sphenoid bone (Bridge between cranial and facial bones) Ethmoid bone (Cribriform plate (holds olfactory nerve up from nose to brain) and Nasal septum)
What is the foramen magnumBig hole in base of skull, too allow the spinal chord to go through and connect to brain.
Frontal boneForehead, superior surface of orbits
Parietal Bonessides and roof
Occipital bonevery back, foramen magnum
Temporal BoneSides (from jaw backwards) and base
Sphenoid BoneBridge between cranial and facial bones(the butterfly shaped one which articulates with all other bones). Cross-brace that strengthens the sides of the skull.
Ethmoid BaseCribriform plate and nasal septum

Section 3

Question Answer
Functions of facial bonesSupport/protection of eyes,processes for muscle attachment (speaking,eating). Support nasal cavity (keep airways open), support structure of inner ear.
Maxillary bone (largest facial bone)makes up central part of face, inner cheek, top jaw and sides of nose- supports the upper teeth and form inferior orbital rim, the upper jaw, most of hard palate.
Maxillary sinuses in bones produce mucus.
Zgomatic bonetop/side of cheek bone and rim&lateral wall of orbit and form part of zygomatic arch.
Mandiblelower jaw,lower arch of teeth, free moving.
Nasal bonesMake up bridge of the nose.
Nasal conchaecreate turbulence in air passing through naval cavity. increase surface area to promote warming and humidification of inhaled air.
Vomerforms inferior portion of nasal septum.
Palatine boneForm the posterior portion of the hard palate. They also contribute to the floor of each orbit.
Hyoid boneSupports the larynx and is site for attachment for muscles of the larynx, pharynx and tongue.
(Has a greater horn,lesser horn and main body, not directly attached/influenced by any other bone)

Section 4

Question Answer
what are the different sinusesFrontal, Ethmoidal, Sphenoidal, Maxillary.
Coronal structure in newbornssoft membrane structures (sutures and fibrous connective tissue) between bones, allow room for bones to form at toddler age.
Largest fibrous areas known as fontanelles.

Section 5

Question Answer
What is the function of the vertebral columnsupport of head and upper body. Protection of spinal chord. Storage of calcium and blood cell production. Providing the leavaredge for movement
How many bone are there in the vertebral column24 vertebrae, the coccyx and the sacrum
Regions of vertebrae from head to tailCervical (7) thoracic (12) lumbar (5) (sacral,coccygeal-tail bone)
How do you describe the curveThoracic and sacral, primary curves (concave anteriorly)

Cervical and lumbar curve, secondary curves (after birth) (anterially covexed).
Primary curvesThoracic and Sacral
Secondary curvesCervical and lumbar

Section 6

Question Answer
#Thoracic vertebraBody: Weightbearing, Articulate with bodies above/below, Separated by intervertebral discs. Arch: Consists of pedicle & lamina, Supports transverse & spinous processes, Surrounds vertebral foramen, (Vertebral canal). Articular processes: Articular facets, Articulate with vertebrae above/below, Spinous process, Transverse process.
what do the different regions do (different processes)such as. what does the spinous process do
Cervical vertebrae Oval body, Transverse foramina (hole which allows artery to brain), Bifid (split) spinous process.
Thoracic vertebrae Heart-shaped body, Facets for articulation with ribs (joint, facet= where joints attach), Long, inferiorly directed spinous process
Lumbar vertebraeMassive (heaviest loading), Blade-like transverse processes. Blunt sides.
What is C1 calledAtlas, articulates with occipital bone. No vertebral body (as not supporting other vertebrae)
What is C2 called Axis, articulates with atlas, Has Dens (peg like bone structure sticking upwards) to allow shaking of head movement.
Sacrum structure (learn from picture)Has sacral canal (articular process, medial sacral crest and sacral hiatus) and Base (with sacral promontory, sacral foramina and apex).