A&P WEEK 8-Skeletal System

winniesmith's version from 2016-11-29 13:13

Section 1

Question Answer
What does the skeletal system includeBones. Cartilages. Joints. Ligaments. Other connective tissues
Functions of the skeletal systemSupport against gravity. Storage: Calcium, phosphorous,Fat. Blood cell production. Protection of soft internal organs. Leverage for muscle action.
Shape classificationSutural, Irregular, short,flat, long, sesamoid.
Flat bonesInternal & external table separated by diploë
Long bonesLonger than they are wide
Short boneswidth≈length (ex. wrist/tarsal bones) allows gliding movement/stability.
Irregular bonescomplex shapes (variety of functions)
Sutural bonesBetween skull bones (strong connection for protection)
Sesamoid bonesSmall, develop in tendons
Structure of long boneDiaphysis(shaft): compact (dense) bone. Medullary cavity (bone marrow). Epiphyses (ends): Trabecular (spongy)bone(lighter). Articular cartilage (on articulating surfaces)

Section 2

Question Answer
What is bone made up ofground substance, protein fibres and bone cells.
What is ground substance made up ofTwo thirds of bone matrix Minerals, predominantly crystals of hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 with other calcium salts and ions.
Protein fibresOne third of bone matrix. Most abundant protein type I collagen
Bone cells Only 2% of bone mass Four types: 1:Osteocytes. 2:Osteoblasts. 3: Osteoprogenitor cells. 4:Osteoclasts
What is an osteocyteMature bone cell that maintains the bone matrix. (canaliculi,osteocyte,matrix).
What is an osteoblastImmature bone cell that secretes organic components of matrix. (matrix,osteoid, osteoblast)
What are osteoprogenitor cells Stem cell whose divisions produce osteoblasts. (precursors to osteoblasts)(Osteoprogenitor cell, medullary cavity, endosteum).
what are osteoclastsMultinucleate cell that secretes acids and enzymes to dissolve bone matrix. (medullary cavity, osteoclast, matrix).

Section 3

Question Answer
Structure of compact boneOsteon,lacunae, central canals, lamellae.
Osteon Basic functional unit. Columnar. Strong in long axis (up and down).
LacunaeContain cells: osteocytes
LamellaeConcentric layers of matrix.
Central (Haversian) canalAxial tunnel for blood vessels
Perforating canalRadial tunnel for blood vessels.
Structure of an osteonHas an endosteum, containing the central canal, surrounded by concentric lamellae (with the collagen fibres in different orientation.

Section 4

Question Answer
Feature of Trabecular (spongy bone) No osteons. Trabeculae. Red Marrow. Yellow bone marrow.
TrabeculaeArches, rods, plates of bone (endosteum lamellae). Branching network. Strong in many directions. Has canaliculi openings on surface (allowing substances to diffuse).
Red MarrowBetween trabeculae. Forms red blood cells. Provides nutrients to osteocytes
Yellow bone marrowFound in medullary cavity.Stores fat
Bone structure and loading pattern-Osteon structure of compact bone provides strength in long axis. -Trabecular bone provides strength in a range of directions. -Trabeculae align according to habitual loading patterns.

Section 5

Question Answer
What is the periosteummembrane outside bone
What are the layers of periosteum-Outer (fibrous) layer: Collagen fibres continuous with bone, ligaments, tendons, joint capsule. -Inner (cellular) layer -Also contains lymphatic vessels and nerves.
What is the endosteummembrane lining bone. Incomplete cellular layer. Lines: Medullary cavity,central canals and trabecular.