A&P Lecture 4A Exam

jsamuels12313's version from 2017-12-09 23:20

Section 1

Question Answer
a motor neuron receives ten EPSPs and five IPSP on its cell body and dendrites (post synaptically). Eventually is triggered to create and send an action potential down the axon. Where on the neuron was the "all or nothing" action potential initiated? Axon hillock "trigger zone"
An action potential is initiated on the cell body of a motor neuron, but eventually gets weaker and "dies-out" Why is the action potential getting weaker?The action potential is initiated in a non-myelinated part of the neuron which causes Na+ to leak out during the action potential
which protein channels are primarily responsible for the deactivation of an action potential down an axon?potassium channels which open
A man is shopping at the grocery store and encounters a distinct perfume scent which immediately reminds him of a girlfriend from long ago. Which structure in the central nervous system is responsible for this memory association triggered by smell?Habenular nuclei
After a severe head injury a patient is found to have difficulty moving the tongue. Upon further investigation it is found that the hypoglossal nerve is damaged. Which cranial nerve is the sight of damage?Cranial nerve XII
A patient complains to the physician that he is feeling dizzy. It is confirmed in the clinic that he is experiencing difficulty maintaining his balance. Which cranial nerve is directly involved with this patients' symptoms? Cranial nerve VIII
After experiencing whiplash in a car accident, a patient is diagnosed with a cranial nerve XI lesion. What kind of difficulty will this patient experience? difficulty shrugging shoulders and flexing his neck
If the facial nerve were damaged, It would result in:Inability to perceive taste in the anterior 2/3 of the tongue & Difficulty creating facial expressions
Cranial nerve VI is responsible for:Movement of the eye laterally
the glossopharyngeal nerve is responsible for:taste to the posterior 1/3 of the tongue and swallowing
The frontal lobe is primarily responsible for:Control of voluntary motor function, initiation of motivation, controlling aggressive and mood, olfactory reception
The lateral cortical spinal tract is responsible for:fine motor movements of the hands
which neuroganglial cell provides the myelin sheath for neurons in the peripheral nervous system?Schwann cells
Which neuroganglial cell myelinated multiple axons in the CNS?Oligodendrocytes
What does it mean for an action potential to perform saltatory conduction?Na+ channels initiate an action potential within the node of ranvier between myelinated portions of an axon
Nodes of Ranvier on the membrane of an axon allow:dense groupings of Na+ channels to open and stimulate saltatory conduction of an action potential
Why is it important for an action potential to demonstrate an absolute refractory period?It will ensure that each action potential is "all or nothing" and will allow for one way transmission of nerve impulses
The membrane of a neuron at rest is 75 times more permeable to:K+ than Na+
What is the characteristic of an action potential, which is sent through an unmeylinated axon?The action potential performs slow conduction
Why is the internal environment of a neuron negatively charged at rest?more K+ leaks out through leaky K+ channels
Graded potentials: can be amplified and decrease in magnitude over any distance
A person tastes a rotten piece of fruit and vomits. Which cranial nerves are involved with the described activity?Cranial nerve VII, and cranial nerve X
Chemically gated K+ channels on the neuronal cell dendrite will initiate:Inhibitory post synaptic potential
Substance P is a neurotransmitter that is released from the inside of damaged cells, therefore triggering pain sensations. How is substance P categorized?as a peptide
Which of the following structures is not found within the diencephalon region of the brain?corpora quadrigemina
Neurotransmitters can stimulate an effect post synaptically on a neuron through direct action. What action most closely defines direct action through the neurotransmitter?the neurotransmitter binds an external receptor and promotes a rapid response
Which area of the brain is considered a motor speech area, responsible for controlling muscular movement of the tongue while speaking and is generally located on the left side of the brain?brocas area
How does the central nervous system determine stimulus intensity?By frequency of impulses
A presynaptic neuron stimulates the opening of twenty K+channels on the dendrite of a post synaptic neuron. What kind of stimulus is initiated and what kind of effect will it have on the axon hillock of the post synaptic cell. IPSP's will be initiated on the dendrite, which will not likely initiate an action potential within the axon hillock
What does it mean for a neuron to be hyper polarized?K+ channels were slow to close, which allowed excess K+ to rush out

Section 2

Question Answer
A 20 yr old male recovers from a motorcycle accident, which caused severe damage to the left temporal region of his head. Further testing reveals that he displays an ability to understand written and spoken language. However, the patient is not capable of making any sound, typical of locked in syndrome. Which part of the brain is likely damaged?the Broca's area in the left temporal lobe
A neuron sends a single neurotransmitter to the dendrites of another neuron (post synaptically). The neurotransmitter triggers the opening of Na+ channels, which allows Na+ to rush into the cell. What kind of Na+ channels are responsible for this action?Chemically gated Na+ channels
Neuron has just finished with the depolarization phase of the action potential. At the end of the action potential, the neuron undergoes a repolarization phase, which brings the cell back to rest. Which protein channels in the membrane are responsible for the repolarization phase of the neuron?K+ channels
Which structure resides below L2 in the spinal cord and is comprised of spinal nerve rootsCauda equina
Which structure in the CNS that lies posterior to the brainstem is responsible for the creating balance, muscle tone, and coordinating fine motor movements?Cerebellum
Which lobe of the brain is responsible for receiving and processing visual stimulation?occipital lobe
The insula lobe is primarily responsible for:perceiving taste sensation
A soccer player performs a bicycle kick and lands on the posterior aspect of his head and neck. After the play he suffered from a mild concussion, and has difficulty seeing how many fingers the trainer is showing him. Which lobe of the brain may be involved in the players inability to properly perceive visual stimulation?occipital lobe
Which of the following is NOT performed by the basal nuclei?regulate olfactory sensation
The spinocerebellar tract is primarily responsible for:relaying skeletal muscle and tendon stretch
Which descending tract in the spinal cord is responsible for relaying fine motor movements and precise movements of the hands?lateral corticospinal tract
Which brainstem structure which resides directly superior to the pons is responsible for creating visual and auditory reflexes and contains the Corpora Quadrigemina?Midbrain
Which hormone does the pineal gland secrete?melatonin
what kind of motor fibers convey impulses from motor neurons, in the CNS to skeletal muscles?somatic motor efferents
which of the following cells is NOT considered a neuroganglial cell?Motor neuron