A+P 2

theofordcomme's version from 2016-09-05 20:32

Section 1

Question Answer
Boundaries of respiratory systemnasal cavity to diaphragm
spine structure32-33 vertebrae
spinal vertebraecervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal
how many cervical7
how many thoracic12
how many lumbar5
how many sacral5
how many coccygeal3-4
what is c1atlas
what does c1 dosupports head, for head rotation
what is c2axis
what does c2 doodontoid process for head rotation
what is c7long spinous process, visible
2 fused bones in spinal structuresacrum, coccyx

Section 2

Question Answer
structure of thoracic vertebraevertebral body, vertebral foramen, 4 articular processes
what are the rib attachmentssuperior, inferior, transverse costal
significance of inferior attachmentlarger vertebrae to support weight
significancee of transverse costalpoints of attachment for muscles and ligaments
where are intervertebral discs of fibrocartilage absentbetween atlas and axis; sacral and coccygeal

Section 3

Question Answer
how many ribs12
ribs 1-7 are...true ribs
ribs 8-10 are...false ribs
ribs 11-12 are...floating ribs
how do ribs 1-7 connectto sternum via costal cartilages
how do ribs 8-10 connectto sternum via common cartilages
how do ribs 11-12 connectthey don't
how do ribs connect to spineposteriorly via costal facets
3 parts of sternummanubrium, body/corpus, xiphoid process
sternal anglemanubrium + corpus

Section 4

Question Answer
where do coxal (hip) bones joinanteriorly at pubic symphysis, posteriorly by sacrum
3 hip bonesilium/iliac crest, ischium, pubis
how is sacrum attached to iliumsacroiliac joint
layman's term for coccyx istailbone
final segment of vertebral column iscoccyx

Section 5

Question Answer
structures and cavities of upper respiratory tractnasal cavities, oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx
sections of pharynxnasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
purpose of larynxprotect lower respiratory tract
sections of larynxepiglottis, vocal folds, hyoid bone
where is the larynxabove trachea, in front of pharynx

Section 6

Question Answer
structures of the lower respiratory tracttrachea, bronchi, lungs
trachea extends fromlarynx to bronchi
2 portions of tracheacervical and thoracic
trachea divides at sternal angle forming the main bronchi
main bronchi divide intolobar (seccondary) bronchi
how many lobar bronchi for right lung3
what are the lobar bronchi for right lungsuperior, middle, inferior
how many lobar bronchi for left lung2
what are lobar bronchi for left lungsuperior, inferior
lobar bronchi divide intotertiary (segmental) bronchi
how many tertiary bronchi for right lung10
how many tertiary bronchi for left lung9
what are the tertiary bronchi segmented forbronchopulmonary segments
tertiary bronchi divide intoterminal bronchioles
how many generations of terminal bronchioles20-25
what is the chain of gas exchangerespiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli

Section 7

Question Answer
lungs are made ofmasses non-muscular tissue
what is mediastinumspace between lungs where heart is
what is the flexibility of the lungshighly elastic
which lung has cardiac notchleft
which lung is bigger and shorter to accomodate liverright
significance of cardiac notchaccommodate the pericardium
what divides the right lung lobeshorizontal and oblique fissures
what divides left lung lobesoblique fissures
what are both lungs divided intobronchopulmonary segments

Section 8

Question Answer
significance of the pleuraenvelop and protect lungs, keep them inflated, friction free movement
intrathoracic serous membranes of the pleuraparietal pleurae, visceral pleurae
significance of parietal pleuraeline thoracic cavity
significance of viscceral pleuraecover each lung
how are membranes attacheda pleural space

Section 9

Question Answer
name for strong central tendonaponeurosis
diaphragm openingsaortic hiatus, esophageal hiatus, vena cava foramen
placement of diaphragmseparates thorax from abdomen
3 groups of muscle fiberscostal, sternal, lumbar
origin of costalinferior and inner surfaces of costal cartilages
origin of sternalinner inferior surface of the xiphoid process
origin of lumbarupper lumbar vertebrae, medial and lateral arcuate ligaments
insertions for the costal, sternal, and lumbarcentral tendon
actions of costal, sternal, and lumbarccontraction, pulls central tendon down, increases vertical and anterolateral dimensions of thorax
innervations of costal, sternal, and lumbarphrenic nerves originating from cervical spinal nerves (C3-C5)

Section 10

Question Answer
inspiratory musclesdiaphragm muscles (costal, sternal, lumbar), external intercostals, interchondral portion of internal intercostals
origin of external intercostalsinferior surface of the superior rib
insertion of external intercostalssuperior surface of the rib below
action of external intercostals and interchondral internal intercostalsexpand rib cage, stiffen chest wall
innervations of external intercostals and interchondral internal intercostalsintercostal nerves (T1-T11)
origin of interchondral portion of internal intercostalsinferior surface of rib spaces from the costochondral junction to the sternum
insertion of intercchondral internal intercostalssuperior surface of the rib below

Section 11

Question Answer
expiratory musclesinterosseous portion of internal intercostals, rectus abdominis, external oblique, transversus abdominus, transverse thoracis, latissimus dorsi
origin of interosseous internal intercostalsinner superior surface of the rib below
origin of rectus abdominispubic symphysis and pubic crest
origin of external obliqueexternal surfaces of the eight lowest ribs
origin of the internal obliquiliac crest, inguinal ligaments, thoracolumbar fascia
origin of transversus abdominusiliac crest, inguinal ligaments, thoracolumbar fascia, inner surface of cartilages of the lower 6 ribs
origin of the transverse thoracisinternal surface of the rib cage from the sternum and costal cartilages
origin of the latissimus dorsispinous process of the lower 6 thoracic vertebrae, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, lower 3-4 ribs
insertion of interosseous internal intercostalsinner inferior surace of rib above
insertion of rectus abdominuscostal cartilages ribs 5-7 and xiphoid process of sternum
insertion of external obliqueiliac crest, inguinal ligament, aponeurosis of the external oblique
insertion of internal obliquecostal cartilages of the lowest 3-4 ribs, aponeurosis of the internal oblique
insertion of transversus abdominisaponeurosis of the transversus abdominus
insertion of transverse thoracisinternal surface of costal cartilages and adjacent portions of ribs 2-6
insertion of latissimus dorsianterior superior surface of the humerus
action of interosseous internal intercostalspull ribs down, stiffen chest wall
actions of rectus abdominus, external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominiscompresses abdomen
transverse thoracicsmay pull ribs slightly down
latissimus dorsicompresses the thorax for forced expiration such as for coughing, with humerus fixed, also elevates ribs for forced inspiration
innervation of interosseous internal intercostalsintercostal nerves T1-T11
innervation of rectus abdominisintercostal nerves T7-T11, subcostal nerve T12
innervation of external obliqueintercostal nerves T7-T11, subcostal nerve T12
innervation of internal obliqueintercostal nerves T7-T11, subcostal nerve T12, first lumbar spinal nerve L1
innervation of transversus abdominisintercostal nerves T7-T11, subcostal nerve T12, first lumbar spinal nerve L1
innervation of transverse thoracisintercostal nerves T2-T6
innervation of latissimus dorsithoracodorsal nerve C6-C8