A look at I.V. Solutions

meek1978's version from 2015-09-28 18:52

Section 1

Question Answer
Isotonic Solution Dextrose 5% in water used for fluid loss due to intravascular dehydration, used for hypernatremia
Don't use D5W forresuscitation, can cause hyperglycemia
0.9% sodium chloride used forshock, hyponatremia, blood transfusion, resuscitation, fluid challenges, metabolic alkalosis, hypercalcemia, fluid replacement in clients with DKA
When should you not use 0.9% sodium chloride when clients have heart failure, edema, or hypernatremia because it can lead to circulatory overload it replaces ECF
Hypotonic 0.45% is used forWater replacement, DKA after initial NS solution but before dextrose infusion, Hypertonic dehydration, Sodium & chloride depletion, Gastric fluid loss from NG tube or suctioning or vomiting
Why should you use hypotonic solutions cautiouslyBecause it may cause cardiovascular collapse or increased ICP. Don't use in patients with liver disease, trauma or burns
Hypertonic Dextrose 5% in 1/2 NS used forDKA after initial treatment with NS-prevents Hypoglycemia & Cerebral edema
Hypertonic Dextrose 5% in NS used forHypotonic dehydration, temporary treatment of circulatory insufficiency and shock, SIADH & Addisonian crisis
Hypertonic 3% sodium chloride solution used for severe dilutional hyponatremia and sever sodium depletion. Administer cautiously to prevent pulmonary edema
Hypertonic 10% in normal saline is used forConditions where nutrition glucose is required

Section 2

Question Answer
Crystalloidssolutions with small molecules that flow easily from bloodstream into cells and tissue - maybe isotonic, hypotonic, or hypertonic
Osmolality of Isotonic Solutions240 to 240 m0sm/kg
Hypotonic Solutionsless concentrated than ECF so it allows movement from bloodstream into cells causing cells to expand.
Avoid Hypotonic Solutions in clients with what disordersICP, Stroke, Head trauma,
Hypertonic Solutionsallows movement of fluid from cells into the bloodstream, causing cells to shrink
Osmolality of Hypertonic Solutiongreater than 340m0sm/kg
Colloids acts asPlasma expanders - are always hypertonic, pulling fluid from the cells into the bloodstream
Examples of Colloids includeAlbumin, plasma protein fraction, dextran and hetastarch

Section 3

Question Answer
IV Complications includeInfiltration, Infection, Phlebitis, thrombophlebitis, Extravasation, Allergic reaction, Air embolism, Speed shock, Fluid overload
Infiltrationleakage of fluid from vein into surrounding tissue when access device dislodges from the vein
Infectioncan occur at the insertion site; tenderness, erythema, warmth, or hardness at site
Phlebitisinflammation of the vein
Thrombophlebitisirritaiton of the vein with clot formation
Extravassationleakage of fluid into surrounding tissues; results when meds seep through veins, producing blistering and eventually necrosis
Allergic reactionresult from IV fluid med, catheter or latex port in the IV tubing
Air embolismentry of air into a vein; resulting in decreased blood pressure, increased pulse, respiratory distress, increased ICP and loss of consciousness
Speed Shock - too rapid infusionresults in facila flushing, irregular pulse, decreased blood pressure and loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest
Fluid overloadgradual or sudden occurrence, produces neck-vein distension, increased blood pressure, puffy eyelides, edema, weight gain

Section 4