A Level Biology - Immunity Application Questionsrename
saira's version from 2016-04-20 19:50
|From your knowledge of cell-mediated immunity and lung structure suggest why humans infected by bird flu may sometimes die from suffocation||Bird flu infects the lungs, leading to massive overproduction of T cells. Accumulation of these cells may block the airways/fill the alveoli and cause suffocation|
|What is the purpose of adding detergent to the mixture of B cells and tumour cells?||To break down the cell surface membrane of tumour cells allowing B cells and tumour cells to fuse. This will then allow the B cells to destroy the harmful tumour cells by producing antibodies.|
|When the detergent is added to the cells, the mixture is gently agitated. Suggest a reason why.||To ensure the B cells and tumour cells repeatedly come into physical contact - This is essential if they are going to fuse and ensures maximum contact between both types of cell.|
|Why are cells from cancer tumours used to fuse with the B cells?||Because B cells are SHORT LIVED and do not divide outside of the body. Tumour cells are LONG LIVED and divide outside of the body. Using both of them leads to long-lived B cells that can be grown outside of the body.|
|Some B cells and tumour cells fuse together. Suggest which other cells might also fuse together?||--> B cells fuse with B cells.|
--> Tumour cells fuse with Tumour cells.
|How might an organisation that funds research DISHONESTLY INFLUENCE the outcome of that research?||--> Present the findings in an incomplete/biased way.|
--> Ignore unfavourable findings.
--> Withdraw funding for research that seems likely to find unfavourable findings.
--> Only fund research likely to produce favourable findings.