9th Grade Groupings

rschupp3's version from 2016-06-02 12:57


This page helps you learn essential 9th grade topics...

Historical Figures

Question Answer
Mansa MusaWest African King, very rich with gold
Peter the GreatModernized and Westernized Russia; Built St. Petersburg - warm water port
Akbar the GreatReligious Toleration
Suleiman the MagnificentRuler of the Ottoman's during the Golden Age and conquered Constantinople in 1453; Known as the lawgiver for rebuilding legal system
Martin Luther95 Theses, brought down RCC
HammurabiFirst set of written Laws
AsokaIndian leader of Maurya Empire, built pillars to show laws of land, completed conquests of Indian subcontinent; converted to Buddhism and sponsored spread of new religion throughout his empire

Historical Figures Cont.

Question Answer
Zheng HeWorld Traveler and Trader, mostly in China/India
Ibn BattutaArab traveler who visited Mali and other areas of the MUSLIM world and kept extensive journals about his voyage
Vasco Da Gamaexplorer for Portugal. First to sail around Africa to India.
Henry VIII"Act of Supremacy" took England away for the Roman Catholic Church and created the Anglican Church. (became head of the church.)
Niccolo Machiavelliwrote "The Prince"- rulers must obtain absolute power and do whatever is necessary to stay in power
Louis XIVabsolute monarch from France. Taxed the poor, but not the rich. Used the tax money to build the Palace of Versailles
Alexander the GreatConquered Persia, India, Egypt. Largest empire at that time. Hellenism: mix of Greek, Egyptian, Persian and Indian cultures.
ColumbusSailed for Spain - explorer. Reached the new world. Columbian Exchange - products going from Europe to the new world and back across the Atlantic Ocean
Elizabeth IOne of Britain's most powerful monarchs. Helped the Renaissance flourish in England

Historical Figures Cont.

Question Answer
Genghis KhanFirst ruler of Mongol Empire
MuhammedCreated the Muslim religion, traveled to Mecca
CortezSpanish conquistador that conquered Mexico and the Aztecs. Helped expand Spanish empire into the new world
PizarroSpanish conquistador, conqueror of Peru, and conquered the Incan Empire. Helped expand Spanish empire into the new world
GutenbergInvented the Printing Press
ConfuciusChinese philosopher
Marco PoloWorld Traveler and Trader in China, Middle East and Europe


Question Answer
Greecedemocracy, city-states, mountainous geography
Romerepublic, representatives, Pax Romana, roads,
Gupta EmpireMath (Concept of zero), Science, Literature
Golden Age of IslamControlled holy land, math, medical encyclopedias
RenaissanceRebirth of learning in Europe, begins in Italy
Medieval ChinaGunpowder, porcelain, ships, moveable type
MongolsStirrups, horseback fighting
AztecsLarge cities, temples, sacrifices, conquered by Europeans
MayansConcept of zero, temples, disappearance unknown
IncansRoadways in mountains, Machu Picchu, conquered by Europeans
West African KingdomsGhana/Mali, trading of gold and salt, Timbuktu


Question Answer
ChristianityBible, Jesus Christ, Monotheistic
Islam5 Pillars, Muhammad, Mecca, Koran
JudaismTorah, Covenant, Monotheistic
BuddhismSiddhartha, 4NT, 8FP, Asia
HinduismCaste System, India, Kharma
AnimismAfrica, Spirits
ShintoismJapan, Spirits
ConfucianismHarmony, 5 relationships, filial piety
Eastern Orthodox ChurchRefers to the eastern branch of Christianity (Byzantine Empire)

9th grade terms & River Valleys

Question Answer
Great Rift ValleyAfrica; where first humans were found to be
River ValleysFirst civilizations located near these
Cultural diffusionThe mixing/spreading of two or more cultures TOGETHER. (may form a new culture)
Nomadicwandering, moving about from place to place. Early man were hunters and gatherers always moving from place to place.
MesopotamiaTigris-Euphrates Rivers
EgyptNile River
IndiaIndus River
ChinaHuang He River
Mandate of HeavenChinese belief that the emperor was given the right to rule from the gods.
PolytheismBelief in MANY gods (Animism, Shintoism, Hinduism, Buddhism)
MonotheismBelief in ONE god/ethical and moral behavior (Judaism, Christianity, Islam)
Terrace farming The cutting out of flat areas into near vertical slopes to allow farming. Appear as steps cut into a mountainside

9th Grade Terms

Question Answer
Cultural diversitythe coexistence of different cultures within the same area.
ethnocentrismThe belief that one's culture is superior to that of another.
chivalryA code of behavior for knights in medieval Europe, stressing ideals such as courage, loyalty, and devotion.
bushidoA code of behavior for knights in medieval Japan, stressing ideals such as courage, loyalty, and devotion.
manorialismThe economic system of the middle ages; based on self-sufficiency.
self-sufficientBeing able to provide for your own needs without help from others; "a self-sufficing economic unit"
plague (Black Death)A deadly disease that spread across Asia and Europe in the mid-14th century, killing millions of people; also know as the Black Death
CrusadesChristian Europe aim to reclaim Jerusalem; a failure; Islam more powerful; opens up trade and gets Europe out of Dark Ages
Holy LandThe region of present-day Israel; includes the city of Jerusalem, which is a holy city to Christianity, Islam, and Judaism
Protestant ReformationProtest against RCC by Martin Luther

Early Civilizations

Question Answer
Neolithic Revolutionwhen humans went from being nomad/hunter gatherers to settling in one place and farming
Fertile CrescentAn arc of rich farmland in Southwest Asia, between the persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea.
cuneiformA system of writing with wedge-shaped symbols, invented by the Sumerians around 3000 B.C.
Mohenjo-DaroA city located in the Indus Valley civilization where great urban-planning occurred
MonsoonsStrong seasonal winds that bring heavy rains to India.
Silk Roadcultural diffusion between China & Europe

Codes of Behavior

Question Answer
Twelve Tables of LawFormed the centerpiece of the constitution of the Roman Republic; included the 5 Common Principles.
Justinian's CodeLegal reforms made by Emperor Justinian (Byzantine Empire)
Hammurabi's Code"Eye for an Eye," first written laws
Magna CartaFirst document to limit the King's power (England's Glorious Revolution)

Political Systems/Gov't

Question Answer
absolute monarchyAbsolutism when a monarch centralizes political power and rules with TOTAL POWER (absolute power). The do whatever they wish and ignore the needs of the people.
dictatorshipA form of government in which the ruler has absolute control over the daily lives of his subjects.
theocracyA government under the control of a Church or state-sponsored religion (i.e Pharoah)
democracyA system of government in which the people participate directly in decision making.
LegalismChinese philosophy; strict rules with harsh punishments because people are EVIL
feudalismA political system in which nobles are granted use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land.

Age of Exploration

Question Answer
Triangle TradeBetween Europe, Africa, Americas
Middle PassageCrossing of Atlantic Ocean
Columbian ExchangeThe world-wide exchange of products and ideas between the western world and the eastern world after Columbus discovered the "New World." (exchanged new foods, diseases, languages, and customs.)
Commercial RevolutionDramatic change in the economy - Changed from the land-based feudal economy TO a MONEY-based capitalist economy. Banking system established
Motives for ExplorationExplored for GOLD, GLORY, and GOD. Trade increased because of these explorations. SPAIN and PORTUGAL were the two main countries sending out explorers on these voyages.
ConquistadorsSpanish military leaders. Cortez defeated the Aztecs. Pizarro defeated the Inca
Encomienda SystemSpanish government gave Spanish colonists permission to used natives as SLAVES

Geography of Places

Question Answer
ChinaNatural boundaries (Mtns, deserts), Isolated
JapanArchipelago, lack of natural resources, Isolated
ItalyPeninsula, many trade ports
Indiamonsoons, peninsula
North AfricaSahara desert, dry and hot
South Africaabundance of resources, diverse features
Russialack of warm water ports, vast and tundra-like (Cold/barren)
Middle EastScare water, fertile crescent, no boundaries, crossroads of culture
Latin Americadiverse features, rainforests, Andes Mtns, difficult to travel across
Greecemountainous, located near Med. Sea, city-states


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