83. Endoscopic Mirrors and Endoscopes with Rigid Tubes

yaboiemil's version from 2016-02-15 19:55


1. Endoscopes are optical devices used to examine body cavities. They produce images
of internal body cavities based on the reflection/refraction of optical beams.
2. Endoscopes can be introduced through NATURAL ORIFICIES (e.g. nose, mouth) or through
SURGICALLY CREATED ORIFICES (e.g. in the thorax, abdominal cavity)
3. They are classified into 3 different TYPES:


Endoscopic Mirrors
Rigid Tube Endoscopes
Fibroscopes & Videoendoscopes


4. They can have 2 types of LIGHT SOURCE:


Question Answer
ExternalMirror (i.e. uses outside light)
InternalRigid tube (i.e. electric light introduced with tube)


5. OBSERVATION can be:


Question Answer
DirectExaminer looks directly into the orifice
IndirectImage is produced on a monitor


6. Endoscopic Mirrors: Usually a flat/convex/specially-shaped mirror that focuses light on a point
of interest, allowing inspection of it.
7. Most frequently used endoscopic mirrors:


Question Answer
LaryngoscopeExamine larynx and Pharynx
OtoscopeExternal Auditory Canal & Eardrum
OpthalmoscopeInterior Eye
BronchoscopeBronchus (passage into the lungs)
CystoscopeUrinary Bladder
LaparoscopeAbdominal Cavity
ArthroscopeArticular Cavities


8. Endoscopes with rigid tubes are made up of a tube with a light source. Often they may have an
optical attachment to help to magnify the tissue being studied.
9. Different surgical instruments may be put through the tube to take a tissue sample.
10. DISADVANTAGES: Rigidity causes discomfort, Light transmission may have great losses of
light energy.