83. Endoscopic Mirrors and Endoscopes with Rigid Tubesrename
yaboiemil's version from 2016-02-15 19:55
Section1. Endoscopes are optical devices used to examine body cavities. They produce images
of internal body cavities based on the reflection/refraction of optical beams.
2. Endoscopes can be introduced through NATURAL ORIFICIES (e.g. nose, mouth) or through
SURGICALLY CREATED ORIFICES (e.g. in the thorax, abdominal cavity)
3. They are classified into 3 different TYPES:
Rigid Tube Endoscopes
Fibroscopes & Videoendoscopes
4. They can have 2 types of LIGHT SOURCE:
|External||Mirror (i.e. uses outside light)|
|Internal||Rigid tube (i.e. electric light introduced with tube)|
5. OBSERVATION can be:
|Direct||Examiner looks directly into the orifice|
|Indirect||Image is produced on a monitor|
6. Endoscopic Mirrors: Usually a flat/convex/specially-shaped mirror that focuses light on a point
of interest, allowing inspection of it.
7. Most frequently used endoscopic mirrors:
|Laryngoscope||Examine larynx and Pharynx|
|Otoscope||External Auditory Canal & Eardrum|
|Bronchoscope||Bronchus (passage into the lungs)|
8. Endoscopes with rigid tubes are made up of a tube with a light source. Often they may have an
optical attachment to help to magnify the tissue being studied.
9. Different surgical instruments may be put through the tube to take a tissue sample.
10. DISADVANTAGES: Rigidity causes discomfort, Light transmission may have great losses of