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8 parts of Speech and Grammer

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joflo's version from 2017-05-30 19:38

Section

Question Answer
clauseconsists of a subject and a predicate(term for verb). DON'T get focused with just a predicate. complete sentence that has a subject, verb, and a predicate ex. because, after, before, until, since, when ex. I want some cereal. EX. He wrote the book WHEN HE WAS 25.
Independent clausecomplete thought that can stand alone
Dependent clausebegins with a subordinating conjunction Sentence with WHILE BECAUSE ALTHOUGH create dependent clauses (ex. WHILE, after, because, before, until, since, when) and does not express a complete thought EX. As soon as the students were seated.
sentence a complete thought. includes a subject and a predicate
8 parts of speechnoun, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections
NOUNperson, place, thing, idea
common noungeneral, not the particular, name of a person, place, or thing ex. hospital, nurse, syringe
proper nounofficial name of person place or thing ex, Fred, Walmart, Paris
abstract Nounname of a quality or a general idea ex. persistence, democracy, pride, courage, compassion, integrity
collective Nounrepresents a group of persons, animals, things ex. family, flock, furniture
PRONOUNtakes the place of a noun, or a group of words acing as a noun ex. Andrew received a medal of honor from HIS school principal yesterday ex. students, their, them
antecedent (pronoun)the word or group of words to which a pronoun refers to is called EX. The STUDENTS (antecedent) wanted their (pronoun) test graded and returned to them (pronoun) ex. students (antecedent) refers to pronouns their, them ( term belongs to PRONOUN)
personal pronounspecific person place thing or idea indicating the person speaking, first, second, third person. ex. my, mine, his, them DOES NOT CONTAIN APOSTROPHE ( ex. it's)
possessive pronounshows possession or ownership, That is MY book That is HIS book
ADJECTIVEword that describes a noun or pronoun ex. ALASKAN winters can be extremely cold ex. The STURDY deck
VERBword used to express action or a state of being ex. works, worked, will work
ADVERBword phrase or clause that describes a verb, adjective, adverb ex. quickly, very, quite EX. The boy was VERY excited when he learned that he had passed his exam (VERY modifies excited (adj) EX. Paul speaks(verb) four languages FLUENTLY (adverb) now
PREPOSITIONALWAYS connected to a noun, first word/s in a prepositional phrase which functions as an adjective or adverb. Shows time, location etc. EX. ...TO her mother's leg. ex. Sam left the class at NOON. ex. The jelly beans are IN the jar. ex. The cat is ON the roof ex.IN THE WINTER, plants somehow “hibernate” just like animals...on, in, under, by,...in, by, at, for, from, with, on, of, to, through... aboard, about, above by, for, from, without, under, with
compound prepositionpreposition that is made up of more than one word
prepositional phrasegroup of words that begin with a preposition, and ends with a noun or pronoun which is called the OBJECT
Object of a prepositiona noun or pronoun that ends a prepositional phrase ex. She lives near (preposition) PHOENIX. (object)
CONJUNCTIONjoins words, phrases, or clauses EX. The dog will sniff the food BEFORE he eats it ex. and, but, or, so, nor, for, yet, neither, nor, either, or (n with n)
correlative conjunctionwork in pairs to join WORDS or PHRASES. EX. NEITHER the pharmacist OR her assistant could read he physician's handwriting
subordinating conjunctionsjoin TWO CLAUSES or THOUGHTS ex. While the nurse was away on vacation, the hospital flooded. WHILE THE NURSE WAS AWAY ON VACATION is dependent on the res of he sentence
INTERJECTION a word or phrase that expresses emotion or exclamation ex. YIKES, WHEW
tensereflects a temporary action. PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE
simple sentencecontains one independent clause and no dependent clause ex. I caught the ball with my hands
epithetare descriptive points. point out a characteristic of a person/thing. usually before a noun. EX. Catherine the GREAT, BROWN EYED girl, Richard the LION-HEART
phraseexpress a concept. Opposite of a clause, Lacks subject and a predicate. Incomplete sentence. a group of two or more words that act as a single part of speech in a sentence. Noun, no verb OR verb but NO noun. No predicate present ex. SIGNING AUTOGRAPHS takes time ex. The bewildered tourist was lost ex. When it is raining. ex. Because you were late.
compound sentencecomposed of at least two independent clauses EX. I feel too weak to walk; I feel too weak to talk. EX. I was hungry, but I didn't eat
parenthesesused for words and figures in order to clarify something
Complex sentenceone independent clause, one dependent clause
full form vs contractedEX. Full form: I shall is contracted to: I'll
sentence fragmentincomplete sentence
Subject-verb agreementSingular subject = singular verb, plural subject = plural verb EX. The library's SHELVES (plural sub) ARE (plural verb) filled with hundreds of books
I vs Me hintTake out the other person EX. Jill and I joined the chess club * I/me joined the chess club -which sounds best
semicolon usetwo independent clauses
direct objectthe person or thing affected by the verb EX. The kids watched (verb) THE BIRDS (direct object) fly in the park. Answers the question WHAT or WHOM
indirect objectthe person or thing affected by the direct object EX. The man(sub) gave(verb) his wife(indirect object) a necklace(direct object) Answers the questions TO WHOM, FOR WHOM, TO WHAT, FOR WHAT
predicatewhat the subject is doing or what the subject is like. ANOTHER word for a verb EX. She is BEAUTIFUL ex. These are the CANDIDATES. EX. She writes POEMS (what the sub is doing, writes POEMS)
First personMy, I, we, me, ours, complete verb in the sentence. contains the sentence's verb---action,
SecondYour, you
Thirdher, he, it, they
Imperative sentence (I'm P...Princess)makes a request or a command
Declarative sentence ( I declare the sky is blue)tells---declares---states---something about a person place, thing
Interrogative (inter spection...Mr. inspection)asks a question
comma usebefore any coordinating conjunction (and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet) that links two independent clauses, before and after a name of a person directly addressed in the sentence
euphemismmild, indirect, or vague term/saying that substitutes for something harsh. ex. the saying "he passed away" for "he died"
Predicate nominativeis a noun or pronoun that follows a lining verb and helps explain or rename the subject. It is the same as the subject of the sentence. EX. Professors are TEACHERS.....Used with irregular verbs
compound-complextwo independent clauses and one dependent clause
predicate adjectiveDescribes/Explain more in depth TYPE of what the subject is doing. Follows a linking verb. EX. My professors are WONDERFUL ex. The manner in which the principal explained the rules was OFF-PUTTING---type of manner
participlea verb form that functions as an adjective, usually end in -ing or -ed. Usually PREcedes the noun. EX. The ABSENT-MINDED (participle) professor (noun)
Linking Verbs do not show actions, they link/join the subject to a noun, pronoun, or predicate adjective. 3 kinds: TO BE: am, is, are, was, were, been, being FIVE SENSES: smell, feel, taste, look, sound SATE OF BEING: appear, seem, become, grow, turn, prove, remain
Comma with dependent clause at the endThe students were late for class because the bus was delayed at a train crossing. NO COMMA needed when dependent clause is at the end.
Comma with dependent clause at the startIf they want to win, athletes must exercise every day. COMMA needed
participial phrasea phrase hat is formed by a participle, its object, and the object's modifiers.
dangling participial phrasewhen the participial phrase directly precedes a noun that is does not modify . Taking the patient's symptoms into account, a diagnosis was made by the physician. Makes it seem like a diagnosis took note of the symptoms and not a physician. wording is off
5 suggestions for Successeliminate cliches, euphemisms, sexist language, profanity, textspeak
compound subjectconsists of two or more nouns joined together by "or, and, either/or"
comparative form-er,less, more is added ex. well = bettER
which/thatwhich one? That one
When to use WHO over whomuse who or whoever if he, she, they'll, can be subtitled in the who clause who? WHO? HE, SHE . who is reasonable? She/is, I is
When to use WHOM over whoUse whom or whomever if him, her, them, me, us, can be substituted in the whom clause. WHOM? HIM? WHOM does this belong to? HER, ME, SHE, THEM
memorize

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