552 study guide page 2

megmagoo's version from 2016-12-11 23:41

Section 1

Question Answer
What are 4 sources of population data for risk assessment?1) population data, 2)epidemoiologic data, 3) age group probability, 4) developmental stage
What are 6 sources of individual data?genetics, age, biologi, personal health/habits, lifestyle environment
Analyzing what leads to the problem on community and individual level is an example of?Risk assessment
How Can problem be prevented?Removing or reducing risk, or boosting protective factors
Define "strategies" for risk assessment and reduction:Broad steps in a plan to accomplish a specific goal
Define "tactics" for risk assessment and reduction:Individual grounded acts that make up an overall strategy
Example: Reduce HIV transmission rates in the community by increasing condom useSTRATEGY
Example: Making sure free condoms are available in every exam roomTACTIC
Example: Providing information on condom use and transmission rates to patientsTACTIC
What are the two types of risk reductions strategies?1) Change Individual bahvior or 2) change organizational & community behavior

Section 2

Question Answer
Define: Incidence (rate) a measure of the frequency with which an event, such as a new case of illness, occurs in a population over a period of time
Define: PrevalenceHow often or how frequently a disease or condition occurs within a group of people. In other words, it is the number or proportion of cases in a given population
Define: Relative RiskA comparison of the risk of a particular event for different groups of people
In the bathtub, the more water the more prevalence of diseasseturning on faucet, adding water= incidence
prevalence=incidence x duration of disease

Section 3

Question Answer
Biologic onsetthe onset of disease (time of infection or start of disease)
preclinical phaseTime between onset and symptoms
detectable preclinical phasetime between onset and when disease can be detected (study guide says symptoms are present, but i dont think this is right)
genetic screening1) may detect hereditary cancer risk 2)may guide prophylactic treatment
3 things that make screening worthwhile1) disease has burden of suffering to make screening worthwhile 2)screening must identify disease earlier than without it 3)earlier therapy must lead to better outcomes

Section 4

Question Answer
Define: Sensitivitythe ability of a test to correctly identify people WITH a disease or condition (test of true positives)
Define: SpecificityThe ability of a test to correctly identify people WTHOUT a disease or condition (tests for true negatives)
Positive predictive valueindicates the likelihood that a person with a positive test result wil actually have the condition
negative predictive valuethe probability that subjects with a neg screening test truly don't have the disease

Section 5

Question Answer
motivational interviewinga psychotherapeutic approach that attempts to move an individual away from a state of indecision or uncertainty and towards finding motivation to making positive decisions and accomplishing established goals.
MI conecptual models based on these two theoriesTranstheoretical model (stages of change), social cognitive theory
4 principles of motivational interviewing are1) express empathy 2)develop discrepancy 3)roll with resistance 4)support self-efficacy
what are the 6 Stages of changeprecontempation, contempation, preparation, action, maintenance, termination
Making statements that indicate you understood the meaning of what is being said is an example of:reflective listening
Listening involves an attitude of curiosity and acceptance of the personreflective listening
Eliciting Change Talk, OARS +E (what does OARS +E stand for?)Open-ended questions, Affirmation, Reflective listening, Summarizing, Eliciting change talk
DARN stands forDesire, Ability, Reasons, Need
3 ways to develop discrepancy1) summarize 2) assist patient in identifying current status and future goals 3) help patient examine path to goals
Relapse Prevention strategies, name 21. Minimize high-risk situations 2.cope with cravings

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