5-1 Bacteriology

q123456's version from 2016-06-01 18:46


Question Answer
giardia lamblialocal secretory IgA deficiency predisposes patients to chronic giardiasis
entamoebabloody diarrhea
quadrinucleate: cyst with 4 nuclei
trophozoite in RBCs
toxoplasma gondiiKA36-35 KA24-24


Question Answer
H. influenzaeChocolate agar with factors V (NAD+) X (hematin)
N. gonorrhaeaeThayer-Martin (VPN) media - Vancomycin, Polymyxin, and Nystatin (Chocolate agar) KA23/8
B. pertussisBordet-Gengou (potato) agar
C. diptheriaeTellurite plate, Loffler's media
polar granules stain deeply with aniline dyes, G+
M. tuberculosisLowenstein-Jenson agar
M. pneumoniaeEaton's agar
Lactose-fermenting entericsMacConkey's agar (pink colonies b/c fermentation produces acid that turns plate pink), E. coli: EMB (eosin-methylene blue) agar as blue-black colonies with metallic sheen
LegionellaCharcoal yeast extract agar buffered with cysteine
FungiSabouraud's agar


Question Answer
transformationconjugation: cell<-->cell
Transformation: Cell<-->lysate (DNA) KA35-24
generalized transduction:cell<-->virus vector
specialized transduction: cell<-->lysogenic virus


Question Answer
Nuclear changes of necrosisPyknosis: condensation of chromatin and shrinkage of the nucleus.
Karyorrhexis: fragmentation of the nucleus.
Karyolysis: dissolution of the nucleus.
necrosiscoagulation necrosis: MI
Liquefactive necrosis: CNS infarction, abscess in a bacterial infection KA32-18 Hydrolytic enzyme action
Caseous necrosis: mycobacterium tuberculosis
gummatous necrosis: coagulation necrosis, tertiary syphilis
fat necrosis: pancreas
bandsAn increase in the percentage of neutrophils is seen with an infection.
segs (a mature neutrophil having a segmented nucleus)
bands (an immature neutrophil with an incompletely segmented or banded nucleus).
Increased band %=extracelluar bacterium


Question Answer
LPS endotoxin of E coliseptic shock (endotoxic shock)
Endotoxin LPS directly stimulates macrophages>>>IL 1,6 and TNFalpha
Pili (fimbriae) of E coliUTIpili>>>conjuagation,
KI CapsularNeonatal meningitis and pneumonia
flagellummigration (samonella and shigella)


Question Answer
Streptococcal skin infectionface puffiness and dark urine
Streptococcal pharyngeal infection KA34-42fatigue and heart murmur
bacterial and human epitope homologyheart murmur, acute rheumatic fever
immune complex depositionpost streptococcal glomerulonephritis


Question Answer
enrichment meidahaemophilus X/V
differential mediamacConkey
selevtive N gonorrhoeae, thayer martin VCN


Question Answer
GiemsaBorrelia (lyme)
PASStains glycogen, mucopolysaccarides; diagnoise Whipple's disease (Tropheryma whippelii)
Ziehl-NeelsenAcid-fast organisms
India inkCyptococcus neoformans (also can use mucicarmine)
Silver stainPneumocystis (HIV pneumonia)

Virulence factors

Protein AS. aureusBinds Fc of Ig. Prevents opsonization and phagocytosis
IgA proteaseS. pneumoniae, H. influenzae type B, NeisseriaCleaves IgA and allows for colonization of respiratory mucosa
M proteingroup A strep
s pyogenes
Helps prevent phagocytosis
S. pneumoniae1st line: azithromycin:translocation
for macrolide allergy, cefuroxime


Question Answer Column 3
S. aureusSuperantigen/enterotoxinsfood poisoning
S. aureusSuperantigen/exfoliatinscalded skin syndrome
S. pyogenesScarlet fever-erythrogenic toxin
KA8-48 microphage-IL1/6,TNFalfa, TH-IFN, Crosslinking outside
toxic shock-like syndrome
Corynebacterium diphtheriaeinactivating EF2causes pharyngitis and psuedomembrane
Vibrio choleraeADP ribosylation of G protein>>>stimulating adenylate cyclase
KA34-5 "Heat labile toxin from E coli"
rice-water diarrhea
E. coliHeat-labile toxin (adenylate cyclase)
Heat-stabile toxin (guanylate cyclase)
Watery diarrhea
Bordetella pertussisinhibits G-alpha-i (increasing cAMP), inhibits chemokine receptorwhooping cough, lymphocytosis
Clostriudium perfringinsalpha toxingas gangrene (double zone of hemolysis on blood agar)
C. tetaniInhibits release of GABA and glycine
would >>>motor neuron axons>>>spinal cord
C. botulismbotulinum neurotoxin: blocks the presynaptic exocytosis of acetylcholine vesicles
Prevents fusion of motor neuron secretory vesicles with the nerve membrane>>>inhibit ACh release
KA 37-14
"floppy baby"
Bacillus anthracisEdema factor (adenylate cyclase)
Spore formation occurs during the stationary phase, lack of nutrients and accumulation of toxins>>>growth ceases/spore develop
Shigellainhibit the 60s ribosomal subunitHUS
S. pyogenesStreptolysin Ohemolysis


Question Answer
Catalase +S. aureus
coag -, noboviocin sensitiveS. epidermis
coag -, noboviocin resistantS. saprophyticus
Catalase -, alpha hem, capsule and optochin sensitive, bile solubleS. pneumo.
Catalase -, alpha hem, no capsule, optochin resistant, not bile solubleViridans strep (s. mutans)
Catalase -, complete hem, bacitracin sensitivegroup A strep (s. pyogenes)
Catalase -, complete hem, bacitracin resistantgroup B strep (s. agalactiae)
Catalase -, no hemolysisEnterococcus and Peptostreptococcus

Gram negative bacteria

Cocci, maltose fermenterN. meningitidis
Cocci, maltose non-fermenterN. gonorrhoeae
Coccoid rodsH. influenzae, Bordetella pertussis, Pasturella, Brucella
Rods, Lactose fermenter (fast)E. coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter
Rods, Lactose fermenter (slow)Citrobacter, Serratia, others
Rods, Lactose non-fermenter , Oxidase negativeShigella, Salmonella, Proteus
Rods, Lactose non-fermenter, Oxidase positivePsuedomonas

Pigment producing bacteria

Question Answer
Gold/yellow pigmentstaph aureus
yellow "sulfur" granulesactinomyces
blue green pigmentpseudomonas
red pigmentserratia masrcescens


Question Answer
Dimorphic fungiHistoplasmosis, blastomycosis, coccidioides, Sporothrix and Paracoccidioides
para:latin america
Oral thursh, interstitial pneumonia and lymphoenia during the first year of lifeTransmission of HIV from mother to fetus
Cryptococcus neoformansround or oval budding yeast
meningoencephalitis in HIV
the latex agglutination test
aspergillus fumigatus-------------------------------------------------
<45 degree
headache and eye pain
aspergillus fumigatus:
1) Headache, nasal discharge, eye in immunosuppressed patients
2)Pulmonary infiltrates in patients with asthma

***mucor/ rhizopus/absidia:
>90 degree
Fever, headache and eye pain in diabetic ketoacidosis and leukemic patients
thorn prick sporothrix nodules
malassezia furfurdegradation of lipids produces acid that damage melanocytes and cause hypopigmented lesions in skin
dermatophytesmicrosporum (head and hair), trichophyton (nail), epidermophyton
Pneumocystis jiroveciHIV+, Fever, cough and shortness of breath. bilateral diffuse interstitial infiltrates, sparing the lower lobes, silver staining cysts
fugus but use antibiotics!!!
treatment: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole


Question Answer
Lancet shaped Gram+ diplococci-----------------------------
Lancet >>>S pneumonia KA35-12 gram+diplococci

Bean>>>N meningitides

Catalase+H2O2>>>H2O (*glutathione peroxidase)
S aureus
Pseudomonas cepacia
H pyloriKA37-46 gram-rids, motile, oxidase+, catalase+, urease produce, multiple flagella but not invasive
acid fast stainaniline dye binds with mycolic acid, fail to decolorize with hydrochloric acid and alcohol after staining carbolfuchsin
What pathogens most often responsible for 2rd bacterial pneumonia? S pneumoniae, S aureus and H influenzae
Most common bacterial meningitis in adults? S pneumoniae and Neisseria
zoonotic bacteriabartonella
borrelia burgdorferi
borrlia recrrentis
yesinia pestis
The site of action of penicillinKA34-6
Penicillin target carboxypeptidases and transpeptidases in the cytoplasmic membrance >>>the biosynthesis of the peptidoglycan *carboxypeptidases and transpeptidases: penicillin binding protein


Question Answer
Haemophilus influenzae Bgram negative coccobacilli
chocolate agar with X/V
growing around S aureus>>>S aureus provides the NAD+
Acute epiglottistis (CHERRY RED)
Bronchitis in smokers
*bronchitis and bronchiopneumonia in elderly patients with COPD: Moraxella catarrhalis (gram negative cocci) legionella does not gram-stain well

Capsule of H influenza:polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP)
rifampin prophylaxis
Mycobacteria grow in parallel chains Virulence
M pneumonia
Antigenic similarity between antigens in the cell membrane of M pneumoniae and erythrocytes
Cold agglutinins
Legionella pneumoniaSputum shows many neutrophils but few or no organisms
Sliver stain
antigen in urine
water source
High fever, hyponatremia, headache and watery diarrhea
more likely in a smoker or immunosuppressed patient
treatment: erythromycin
C perfringenstransient watery diarrhea and gas gangrene
lecithinase>>>Split phospholipid molecules
S aureus1)steomyelitis in children
2) S aureus, macrophages and T
Fever, vomit/diarrhea, muscle pain, a tampon in the vagina
S epidermidisS epidermidis
Gram+, coagulase- cocci, synthesis of an extracellular polysaccharide matrix
P aeruginosa
non lactose, oxidase+
blue green pigment
water sourse
endotoxin>>>fever shock
exotoxin (inactivates EF-2)
pneumonia with CF
Bacterial sepsis (BLACK lesions) in immunosuppressed patients
Treatment: ticarcillin, piperacillin, 3rd cephalosporins
N meningitideshigh fever, confusion, headache and purpuric rash
Meningococcemia>>>>waterhouse friderichsen syndrome(adrenal gland destruction)
campylobacter jejunimost common of acute gastroenteritis
transmitted from domestic animals to humans
grows in 42 degree
Guillain–Barré syndrome
reiter syndrome
dental cariesS mutans
Salmnella typhiH2S bloody diarrhea, fever and rose spots at the periumbilical area
rubellaface rash+postauricular and occipital lymphadenopathy
rabieswound >>>neuron axons>>>salivary glands
rabies encephalitis>>.restlessness, agitation and dysphagia progressing to coma 30-50 days following an exposure to cave bats
would >>>motor neuron axons>>>spinal cordC tetani
klebsiella inguinaleGranuloma inguinale
Klebsiella pneumonialobar cavitation in alcoholics over 40 years of age with diabetes or obstructive lung disease
**** Gram+ rod
Listeria monocytogenes

eating soft cheese and milk KA24-33
newborn, immunocompromised, pregnant women
amnioitis and spontaneous abortion in pregnant women: a 28 year old women with 28 weeks' gestation develops a flulike illness with fever, headache and myalgias. several days later, she has a spontaneous abortion (amnionitis).

meningitis: fever chills and malaise in immunocompromised adults (transplatation, hodgkin's disease)

mile GI in healthy

motile, Gram+, rods, B-hemolysis, Grow well at regrigeration
chlamydia trachomatis4 week-old boy has pneumonia, he had conjunctivitis on the fourth day of life

lymphogranuloma venereum: Groin pain, swelling, ulcers, fever, cytoplasmic inclusion bodies
bordetella pertussisKA32-14
choking spells

encapsulated gram- rods
borrelia burgdorferitick ixodes
stage 1:erythema chronicum
stage 2:Bell's palsy (tmporary facial paralysis resulting from damage to the facial nerves) or AV nodal block
stage 3: chronic arthritis
Treatment: doxycycline
WaterborneLeptospira interrogans
Pseudomonas A
legionella pneumophila
naegleria fowleri

***Leptospira interrogans:
spirochete with hooks
weil's disease (live and kidney dysfuntion, hemorrhage, anemia, fever)
HAWAI travel and have flulike sympotoms:
fever, headache, jaundice, GI pain and conjunctivitis


Question Answer
malariaplasmodium vivax and ovale: schuffner dots
only p vivax occurs in USA
Dormant forms in the liver>>>cause relapses.
2 bacterias produce exotoxin A which ribosylates EF2Diphtheria and pseudomonal
mayonnaisestaphylococcal food poisoning
Vibrio choleraBacteria is very sensitive to gastric acidity, grows in alkaline media
bacteroides fragilisGram-, anaerobic rod
acid labile picornaviridaerhinovirus
lactose fermenting G- E coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter
honey infantC botulinum
do not ferment sorbitol, do not produce glucuronidaseO157:H7
fever, dyspnea, iv drug usertricuspid valve endocarditis>>>pulmonary infarction
colonic flora, growing in hyertonic 6.5% NaCl and bileEnterococcus
the treatment of S epidermidis vancomycin
disruption of cell membranesalcohols
denaturation of proteinsalcohols
hydrogen peroxidefree radicals
axillary lymphadenopathy and scratch marks on the armbacillary angiomatosis
Recurrence of genital herpes
daily valacyclovir