411 Week 6 Objectives

olanjones's version from 2017-06-26 03:44

Chapter 5 Objectives

Question Answer
Describe the concept of Global Health *People are traveling more & quicker so the spread of disease can happen in 80 hours. It is almost impossible to isolate a contagious disease & it’s country of origin. Even developed countries that are more equipped to provide highly specialized care than poorer countries are not isolated from exposure risks.
Explain why health disparities are an important global concern.Health of population is impacted by poverty level dramatically. There are little to no barriers between countries around the world, so large health disparities are ultimately harmful to everyone.
Describe how intergovernmental organizations work to address health issues in the world.These are agencies in which official representatives of various countries' gov'ts work together to improve health status. Can be multilateral (many countries) or bilateral (only two countries).
Describe how nongovernmental organizations work to address health issues in the world.AKA Voluntary Organizations (NGOs). *Usually vectors to help get funding to other countries. Not affiliated with a particular gov't, but may work in conjunction with a governmental agency on a specific project
Multilateral organizations include WHO, PAHO (Pan American Health Organization), UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund); World Bank; USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development)
NGO examples Oxfam, Project Hope, International Red Cross, Catholic Relief Services (CRS), church-sponsored health care missionaries.
List the countries that have higher rates of death from malnutrition and infectious disease Nigeria & India (malnourished children d/t mothers having little to no education)
Swaziland, Botswana, S. Africa, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi (HIV Prevalence)
SE Asia Region (TB aka 2nd leading infectious disease cause of adult deaths worldwide)
most of Asia, Africa & Latin America (Malaria *most important vector-transmitted disease in the world.
*NTK Leading cause of death in children <5years of age worldwideDiarrheal Disease. Frustrating because it is the most preventable (Clean water and food)
List the countries that are more concerned with chronic health conditions.U.S.; UK; Japan; New Zealand, Scandanavian Countries; Germany;
Describe the epidemiological transition that is occurring.refers to the changing health conditions affecting populations as a country moves from poverty to prosperity.
*Key to controlling malariapolicies of no free-standing water/environmental control
Identify the features distinguishing health care delivery systems.Generally based on the principles of capitalism or social welfare.
Capitalistic/Entrepreneurial model: principle is minimal gov't involvement & reliance on private-sector providers for health care services.
Welfare models: governmental direction & regulation is expected & degree of gov't responsibility varies.
Beveridge Model: total gov't control with a system funded by taxes or a more decentralized version w/ funds from personal contributions & laws.
List the criteria used to compare the effectiveness of health care delivery systems.Level of health of the population
Degree of health disparities w/in country's population
Responsiveness of health care system
Distribution of responsiveness within the population
distribution of financing for health services w/in the population
Describe the types of concerns common to all forms of health care delivery systems.Costs-should it be tax funded, insurance funded, self-funded, or funded by a combo of methods?
Should there be central planning, local planning or a combo of both?
Should health care professionals be government employees, self-employed entrepreneurs or a combo of both?
Explain how nurses participate in the global health effortCan become employees of international organizations, political activists, or volunteers. They are highly valued in international health efforts as their expertise enhances volunteer programs. Can also be employed in epidemiological studies, communicable disease control, health care planning, and educating other nurses/health care professionals.

Chapter 9 Key Terms

Question Answer
Environmental Health comprises those aspects of human health, including quality of life, that are determined by physical, chemical, biological, social, and psychological problems in the environment. It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing, correcting, controlling, and preventing those factors in the environment that can potentially affect adversely the health of present and future generations
Institute of Medicine (IOM) defines environmental health as"a freedom from illness or injury related to exposure to toxic agents & other environmental conditions that are potentially detrimental to human health."
Environmental justice refers to the disproportionately high exposures of low-income and minority populations to environmental health hazards, such as air pollution, hazardous waste sites, pesticides, lead exposure, and unsafe drinking water
EPAhas created a useful model to consider the many factors affecting environmental justice and health disparities
Fate and transport of chemicals refers to the way in which pollutants migrate from one place to another. (Example: mercury from coal plant releases into air, gets into water, microorganisms convert it to organic mercury, which is toxic, then eaten by fish and humans eat fish!!)
Toxicology the study of chemicals and their potential to make humans (and other life forms) sick.
Ecology refers to the study of living things in relationship to their environment.
Exposure assessmentpotential environmental hazards should be included in every individual's health history presents questions that should be part of this assessment.
LeadThere is no safe blood level for lead * and effects seem to be irreversible
VOCs (Volatile organic compounds)chemicals that are gases at room temperature such as CO
MSDS (Material Safety and Data Sheets)contains labels of potentially hazardous chemicals/materials. All employees should be trained about risks.
"Right to Know" statutes and regulations establish these about specific contaminants that are released into our env't. Example: public drinking water must be tested and posted regularly
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)Part of US Dept. of Labor. The regulatory agency responsible for developing regulations and standards.
NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) a research institution under the Centers for Disease Control. Responsibility is to develop and implement research strategies to determine the extent of work-place injuries and illnesses and the efficacy of workplace intervention to decrease injuries and illnesses.
Precautionary Principle states that if there is some evidence about the relationship between toxic substances or environmental hazards and human health, even if scientific evidence about cause and effect is uncertain, precautionary measures should be taken to protect the environment and human health
"body burden"env't is full of toxic chemicals & it can accumulate in our bodies in the blood, fat, breast milk, other tissues and body fluids.
Dose responsethe extent of the biological damage produced by a chemical depends on two things: the amount of the exposure or it's dose and the response of the person exposed.
MCS (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity)defined as “[1] a chronic condition [2] with symptoms that recur reproducibly [3] in response to low levels of exposure [4] to multiple unrelated chemicals and [5] improve or resolve when sources of exposures are removed, along with a 6th criterion . . . requiring that symptoms occur in multiple organ systems”
Hazardous waste includes infectious wastes, agricultural and industrial by-products, radioactive substances, flammable products, and chemical agents. Hospitals, medical offices, and laboratories must dispose of hazardous waste separately from regular solid waste.
Superfund sitesite that has been evaluated & has been determined to pose a hazard. The most dangerous ones get put on the National Priority List via EPA's online Envirofacts to see if your community has a Superfund site.
Brownfield sitesa property is designated for redevelopment & there is a concern that some past use has created a health risk.
Risk communicationWhen engaging in this kind of communication around envt'l risks, remember that community members may be afraid and/or anxious...they may not trust someone from a government agency (why should they?). Listen to community members to understand their real concerns
Household hazardslead, radon or CO. Families should be encouraged to use community resources & obtain testing for these, nurses can be role models and advocate for changes in habits.

Chapter 9 Objectives

Question Answer
Explain how the environment affects human health in the homeHidden risks such as formaldehyde in the binding of wood chips or lead-based paint found in houses built before the 50s
Explain how the environment affects human health in the occupational settingexposure to chemicals and physical injury occurs, especially in the medical field (back injuries)
Explain how the environment affects human health in the communityif air, water, soil is causing harm to the population will increase need for healthcare and support.
List key areas that are important to assess in the identification of household environmental hazardsThe year home was built (before '78)?, lead testing, living space in basement
Heating source (combustion, gas, wood stove, fireplace?)
Is the gas dryer vented? Gas hot water heater, vented? Gas stove?
Water: well water; lead pipes; water tested for contaminants
Smoke & fire safety; shelter; fire evac route or disaster plan?
Insects in home, rodents, pesticide spray
Air freshener used, candles, incense
Food types served
Mercury thermometer in house?
smoking in home?
List key areas that are important to assess in the identification of occupational environmental hazardswhat type of contaminants and toxic substances are being put out; risk for injuries (wearing a helmet or not);
List key areas that are important to assess in the identification of community environmental hazardsAir quality; water quality
ag/lawn chemicals being used?
Land/soil contaminated by previous or current use?
Are major roadways contributing to air pollution & particulate matter?
Are there sidewalks in neighborhoods, farmers markets, trees, green spaces?
Describe what PHN do to minimize the adverse effects of the environment on their client's healthAdvocacy for institutional, legislative & regulatory change bc they are one of the most trusted professionals in society & they bring a good scientific background combined with excellent communication skills. Nurses can be researchers to try to understand the best ways to eliminate or reduce env'tl health risks.
List some of the critical resources that are available to the PHN when working with clients in home, occupational setting & communityThe I-Prepare exposure history: Investigate all Exposures; Present Work (what is their routine at work); Residence; Envirionment; Past Work; Activities; Resources & referrals (ATSDR, AOEC, AAOHN, OSHA, NIOSH, EPA, health dept, poison control); Educate
- Using this tool in combination with the National Library of Medicine's ToxTown & the Household Products Database will help to determine some of the most common health risks that are associated with most homes

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