411 Week 3 Objectives

olanjones's version from 2017-05-29 23:26

Chapter 21 Key Terms

Question Answer
Vulnerable populationa group or groups that are more likely to develop health-related problems, have more difficulty accessing health care to address those health problems, and are more likely to experience a poor outcome or shorter life span because of those health conditions.
Povertypeople who are poor having difficulty providing basic necessities of food, clothing & shelter for themselves & their families.
Poverty indexU.S. set a living standard in which it considers "adequate." Those who fall below this income are considered poor. AKA poverty "threshold."
How is poverty index derived?By determining costs of purchasing specific goods and services & incorporates cost of food for a minimum adequate diet. Then multiplies that by 3 = basic subsistence standard.
Extremely poorpeople with incomes 50% or less of the poverty level
In-kind paymentsgovernmental subsidies such as food stamps, public housing assistance, and vouchers provided by the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program that are not counted as income.
Food insecuritycondition of ppl who do not consistently have access to enough food to allow for active & healthy living.
Homelessnessno fixed nighttime residence; or has temporary shelter
Runaway teenshave psychological disturbances & higher rate of drug abuse
Throwaway childrenhave parents who disconnected all rel. with them; rejected by parents d/t divorce, incestuous behaviors or scapegoating.
Migrant workersomeone who moves from state to state with seasons in search of employment
Seasonal workerlives & works in one geographical area that may travel for their work, but stays in one state/area.
National housing wageassumes that individuals will use 30% of their total income for housing costs

Health Policy

Question Answer
Explain sources of power available to nurses engaged in advocacy 1) Power in numbers since nurses are the largest group in the health care force which could counterweight
2) Expert power: have a view of health care & patients unlike anyone in the health care setting.
3) Legitimate power: nurse's license come with rights & responsibilities
4) Referent power: nurse's have people's respect & admiration
5) Reward Power: nurses can reward their elected officials by voting them back into office (or out if they don't make decisions to strengthen health care system)
6) Coercive power: opposite of reward power, (scare them into doing what you want!)
Regulatory Processregulatory agencies implement health policies by creating regulations that are published for the public to review & comment.
What is the "grass roots" approach?Getting face to face with community to get assessment. Extremely helpful b.c you are assessing what the community really says they need/want at the ground level.
Nurse's role in policy-makingNurse's have a huge potential role in making changes that can influence: the workplace; governmental policy; prof. orgs.; & community level. We want to have a voice in how these policies are developed & implemented. Nurses are at the front of the line for patient safety, best practices, and other shortcomings of the health care system.
Policy-making phase 1: Formulation (think nursing process)there is something that is concerning to you, or there is a need or problem that comes to the surface. Need to do an assessment so you can figure out what the problem is. This is where an input of info., ideas & research from key ppl, organizations & interests groups are very influential.
Policy-making phase 2: Implementation PhaseDisseminate information about the adopted policy & put policy into action. The proposed policy is transformed into a plan of action.
Policy-making phase 3Evaluation: Implementation, Performance, Impact? (Usually always an unintended problem, things happen that you may not anticipate after policy is implemented)
Criteria for healthy policy evaluation (need to look at these before & after implementing your policies) • Adequacy in meeting health needs of public
•Safeguards for the rights of individuals
•Equitable allocation of resources: tax reform
•Capacity for implementation: do you/did you have the resources you needed for this
•Effects of the policy on target population: you want your policy to do what you planned for it to do, should be effective and meet your goals.
Strategies for influencing the policy making processtestifying at hearings, participating on task forces, supplying written testimony & personally visiting legislators. (chapter 1)
Summarize relationship b/t policy making process & political making processDecision makers rely mainly on the political process as a way to find a course of action that is acceptable to the various individuals with conflicting proposals, demands, and values. Ex: policies involving major change will cost more or there will be more controversy involved.
Cite guidelines for communicating with policymakers and governmental officialsmust be effective communicators, be informed, concise, clear about what they want. Write a well crafted letter, send emails, send thank you notes, etc. Sometimes legislators rely on effective advocate work to communicate with them the issues at hand & perceptions from others.
Recognize the purpose or mission of major federal, state, and voluntary agencies engaged in influencing, developing and/or implementing health and/or health-related policiesHealth policy is a set course of action (or inaction) undertaken by governments or health care organizations to obtain a desired health outcome - The purpose or mission of any agency involved in the process is to have an outcome that reflects their viewpoint on what the best health outcome is
Describe the steps that are followed in the legislative process that advances an idea into a lawidea is generated → sponsor introduces bill to legislator via "1st reading" → gets referred to appropriate committees → hearing held, committeee discusses/debates & votes to move bill to other committees of referral → 2nd Reading to place of origin (i.e. HOR) → 3rd rdg & vote → signed by senate president & sent to governor → gov. signs or vetoes & bill becomes law 90 days later → Now is called an "act" (AK Statutes)

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