411 EXAM 1

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Chapter 1 Terms & Objectives - Mauer

Question Answer
Defining Population healthachieving the greatest possible biologic, psychological & social well-being of the population as an entity of its individual members.
public health nursing requires specific educational preparation.
public health nursing description (via American Public Health Association)the practice of promoting and protecting the health of populations using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences
public health nursing practice includes assessment and identification of subpopulations that are at high risk for injury, disease, threat of disease, or poor recovery and focusing resources so that services are available and accessible
community health nursing denotes a setting for the practice of nursing; inclusive term that encompasses nursing practice areas emphasizing health promotion, illness prevention & building social & community support for health (Diem, chapter 1)
community health nurse can practice community-based nursing, how?by working outside of hospitals and nursing homes, although, this nurse would NOT have any formal education in public health nursing and can give care to individuals/families but not populations.
community health nursing description via ANA combines nursing practice & public health practice to promote & preserve health of populations. it is general & comprehensive, not limited to an age group or diagnosis & is continuous.
The focus of community health nursingprevention of illness & the promotion & maintenance of health
What does "population-focused" mean?Community health nursing care that is aimed at improving the health of one or more populations.
Aggregatespeople who have some common characteristics & frequently common concerns, but may NOT INTERACT with each other to address those concerns. EX: pregnant teens
Populationgeneral public or society or a collection of communities.
Members in a population can be defined bygeography or special interest/circumstance
Communitygroup of people who share common interests, who INTERACT with each other, act COLLECTIVELY w/in a defined social structure.
Neighborhooda smaller, more homogenous group than a community. Self-defined, interacting group.
Empowermentprocess of assisting others to uncover their own inherent abilities, strengths, vigor, wholeness & spirit.
Why is empowerment so important to community/population health nursing?Nurses can assist in fostering hope and by removing barriers to expression. Although not all illnesses can be prevented & death not eliminated, empowerment helps humans live in ways that strengthen resilience; decrease preventable diseases, disability & premature death; & relieve experiences of illness, vulnerability & suffering.
Health-related goals of concern to community/pop health nursescare of the ill; support of development; support of relatedness; promotion of self-responsibility; promotion of healthful environment (Mauer p11 Tbl 1-2)
Values that underlie community/pop health nursing
Clients of community/population health nursesnot just individuals & families, but groups, aggregates, populations, organizations/systems within the community
Responsibilities of comm/pop health nurses (p14 Box 1-9)care to ill @ their homes & teaching caregivers; maintaining healthful envt's; teach promotion & prev of injury/disease; ID those who need services to improve living standards; prevent/report neglect & abuse; advocate for standards of living & health care services; collaborate to achieve adequate health care services; care for oneself & participate in development care activities; quality nursing care & engage in research
Competencies of beginning community/public health nursesindependent & proficient in using numerous skills & adapt them to client needs such as med use, tx, mgmt of env't, asepsis, documentation & provision of assistance with activities of daily living.
Generalists vs. specialistsgeneralists are baccalaureate prepared and are expected to apply nursing process to individuals, families, groups. Specialists have a masters degree & provide orientation, staff development, consultation & professional leadership to nurse generalists.

Ch. 2 Terms and Objectives - Mauer

Question Answer
Community health nursingTerm developed in the 1960s to expand the term public health nursing because the term public health had become linked only with nurses employed by governments; a synonym for public health nursing
Public Health NursingNursing for social betterment; nursing care for the health needs of the entire population or public; community-based, population-focused nursing
Community Health Nursingsynthesis of nursing and public health nursing
Nurse leaders (Florence & Wald for ex) merged public health practice with nursing to create public health nursing. How did they do this? Florence assisted with the start of district nursing in which new grads be assigned within a parish or district & labored in conjunction with physicians who worked in a local dispensary. These activists combined with their caring practiced community health nursing to promote the health of the public.
How does Healthy People 2020's goals & objectives help guide community/public health nursing practice?Gives PHN common goals and prioritize areas to focus on. There are only so many things we can do and populations we can work with, gives us a way to plan and think about how to promote health & wellness and prevent injury in the future.
Principles of service-learningIt is a structured learning experience that combines community service with preparation and reflection. Strives for a balance b/t service & learning objectives, partners must negotiate differences in their needs & expectations. Emphasis on community concerns by partnership with community partners, also emphasizes reciprocal learning teacher/student learn from each other. Reflection allows connecting practice & theory to foster critical thinking, students place their roles as health prof. in larger societal context.
Interventions vs. Population types in Minnesota Intervention WheelPopulation types can be population based, individual-focused, community focused and systems focused. Interventions are all on the outer portion of the wheel.
Primary health careincludes essential health needs that are universally accessible (free-ish) to individuals and families within communities. Ex. clean water, food stamps, immunizations, sanitation, etc.)
Primary caresuch as having a family-doctor type, requires payment
How does PHN prevent illness & injury & premature death?by applying evidence of hx of diseases, epidemiology, modalities for early detection & prevention & determinants of human behavior for education
How does PHN promote health?focusing on individuals and populations as a whole and not solely on people who are at risk for specific diseases. Teaching & educating in order for clients to be interested in learning about how to better fill their social roles, improve activities of daily living and overall well-being.
Responsibilities of PHN in promoting health & preventing illness in community(1) identification of unmet needs; (2) advocacy and referral to ensure access to health and social services; (3) teaching, especially for health promotion and prevention; (4) screening and case finding; (5) environmental management; (6) collaboration and coordination; and (7) political action to advocate for adequate standards of living and health care services and resources.

*NTK highlights from lecture

Question Answer
Core Functions PHAssessment, Policy development, Assurance
Assessment Monitor health status, diagnose & investigate health problems
Policy Developmentagencies & community partnerships come together to help people understand topics via informing, educating & empowering. Development of policies & plans to support efforts
Assuranceenforce laws/regs that protect health/safety; link indiv. to care & provide care if not otherwise available; assure competency in public health workforce; evaluate effectiveness of programs & edu. that is being offered.
Difference between internal & external evidence of EBPInternal derived from population directly; external is research found outside of population in question.
Definition of public health nursing (from lecture)population-focused via advocacy, policy making & teaching. It is the practice of promoting & protecting health of populations using knowledge from nursing, social & public health sciences.
4 main goals HP20201) Attain high-quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury & premature death. 2) Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, & improve health of all groups 3) create social & physical env'ts that promote good health for all 4) Promote QOL, healthy development & behaviors across all life stages

Crossword Terms

Question Answer
MOTIVATIONforce, stimulus or influence; incentive, drive
AFFECTIVE arena of learningincludes changes in attitudes and development of values
FORMATIVE evaluationongoing evaluation instituted for purpose of assessing the degree to which objectives are met or activities are being conducted
TERTIARYprevention that focuses on decreasing disability
SURVEILLANCEdescribes & monitors health events via ongoing systematic collection, analysis & interpretation of health data for the purpose of planning, implementing & evaluating public health
ECOLOGICAL APPROACHinterventions to initiate or maintain healthy behaviors directed toward multiple targets of the pop: individual, family, group, community & society
CULTURAL AWARENESSan appreciation of and sensitivity to a client's values, beliefs, practices, lifestyle, and problem-solving strategies.
ASSURANCErole of public health agencies in ensuring that essential pop-centered health services are available. May include providing essential personal health services
EVIDENCE BASED PRACTICEincludes the best available evidence from a variety of sources, including research studies, evidence from nursing experience and expertise, and evidence from community leaders
SOCIAL MARKETINGuses commercial marketing principles and technologies for programs designed to influence the knowledge, attitudes, values, beliefs, behaviors, and practices of the population-of-interest
HEALTH LITERACY“the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions”
CODE OF ETHICSmoral standards that delineate a profession's values, goals & obligations
COGNITIVE domain of learningincludes memory, recognition, understanding, reasoning, application, and problem solving 28 factors that influence health status across the life cycle
PRIMARY PREVENTIONfocuses on health promotion & education
POLICY DEVELOPMENTsupports health of pop. using scientific knowledge base in making decisions about policy
BENEFICENCEethical principle that one should do good & prevent or avoid doing harm
HEALTH BEHAVIORany health-related action undertaken by a person to prevent or detect disease, protect health, or promote a higher level of health.
COLLABORATIONmutual sharing & working together to achieve common goals in such a way that all persons or groups are recognized & growth is enhanced
AGGREGATEpopulation or defined group
EVALUATIONdetermining whether a service is needed & can be used when conducted as planned, and whether the service actually helps ppl in need
SUMMATIVEevaluation method used to assess program outcomes or as a follow-up of the results of the program activities
ADVOCACYactivities for the purpose of protecting the rights of others while supporting the client's responsibility for self-determination; involves informing, supporting, and affirming a client' self-determination
VALUESbeliefs about how one should or shouldn't behave; beliefs about worth or importance of what is right or esteemed. Organized into systems.
PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEMa broad range of services, including, but not limited to, basic health services, family planning, clean water supply, sanitation, immunization, and nutrition education. It consists of programs design
ASSESSMENTsystematic data collection on the population, monitoring of the pop's health status & making info. available on the health of the community
INTERVENTIONSactions taken on behalf of communities, systems, individuals, and families to improve or protect health status” (ANA, 2003).
PSYCHOMOTOR area of learningthe performance of skills that require some degree of neuromuscular coordination and emphasizes motor skills.
POPULATIONcollection of individuals who have one or more personal or environmental characteristics in common.

DIEM Chapters 2 & 4 terms (that have not already been defined above)

Question Answer
teamsare more than just a group of people working together; includes ppl who are committed to each other, the team & the team's vision about what can be accomplished.
tasks & moraleBoth are required to achieve the strength in the relationship among members, both are required.
group vs. teamnegative experiences from being in a group arise because that group never developed into a team.
team leaderorganizes meetings & keeps activities coordinated. Provides or develops ways of managing meetings that encourages involvement of everyone as well as progress of the team.
decision making processclearly define problem so everyone understands, propose solutions w/o negative comments, analyze prob. from different perspectives, make decision by choosing the option that everyone accepts, evaluate it when it has been implemented
weekly summaryshould have the same type of information as the minutes of meetings but should also include other types of activities that took place, results of the activities, decisions that were made and plans for the next clinical placement period.
self-assessmentinitial and ongoing & encourages each person to look critically at strengths & challenges & offer them to the group.
Team evaluationinvolves identification of team accomplishments, challenges & ideas for improving effectiveness
team agreementprovides basic structure for ongoing team evaluation & reflection. set of ground rules.
reflective practicemay include keeping a journal in order to look back on team role & interactions with the community as part of your professional practice
questionnairedata gathering device composed of variety of questions
community mappingimportant part of the introduction to the community for the team to work on. Involves getting a picture of the geography of the community , some sense of what it would be like to live there & the resources that are available to the community.
community meetingsheld to obtain the views of as many people as possible.

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