#4 Pregnancy Test #4 114 (theory bs and stages of growth)

kelsscoot's version from 2015-11-26 03:21

Section 1

Question Answer
Growthinvolves measurable physical change and increase in size
Developmentorderly progressive increase in complexity of the total person
Principles of Growth and DevelopmentCephalocaudal (head to toe), proximal to distal, simple to complex, generalized to specific
Cognitive theory (4 stages)explores how people learn to think, reason, and use language
Stage 1 sensorimotor (birth to 2 years)progresses from responding through reflexes to purposful movement and organized activity, object recognition, object permanence - objects still exist when not seen (peekaboo)
Stage 2 preoperational skills (2-7 years)highly egocentric (only able to view world from their perspective), thinking now incorporates past events and anticipates of the future
Stage 3 Concrete Operations (7-11)Symbolic functioning (ability to make one thing represent a different thing that is not present), able to consider another point of view, thinking is more logical and systematic
Stage 4 Formal Operations (11 - adulthood)Rational thinking and deductive reasoning, thinking in abstract is possible, able to deal with hypothetical situations and make logical conclusions after reviewing evidence
Psychoanalytic theory (Id, Ego, Super ego)identifies structure of personality as consisting of 3 parts: the id, the ego, and superego
Idinstinctive & unconscious urges
Egomediates between inner instinctual desire and outer world
Super egocensor for thoughts, feelings, and behavior develops around Age 3-4
Psychosexual development, 5 phasesoral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stage
Oral phase1st year, sucking, swallowing, pleasure by relieving hunger and reducing tension
Anal phasethrough about 3, functions of elimination take on new importance. Conflict occurs during the toliet training process as the child is required to conform to societal expectations.
Phallic phase4,5, or 6, focus of pleasure shifts to genital area, conflict occurs as the child feels possessive toward the parent of opposite sex and rivalry toward the parent of same sex
Latency phase5/6 to puberty, relative quiet, previous conflicts are resolved. Focuses energy on intellectual and physical pursuits and derives pleasure from peer and adult relationships and school
Genital stagepuberty through adulthood, sexual urges reawaken as hormonal influences stimulate sexual development, focus on finding mature love relationships outside the family

Section 2

Question Answer
Psychosocial TheoryErikson's 8 stages of ego development
1. Trust vs. mistrustbirth to 1 year, trust - hope and drive, mistrust - fear, withdrawal, and estrangement
2. Autonomy vs shame1-2 yrs, autonomy results in self control and will power, shame -self doubt
3. Initiative vs. guilt2-6, initiative leads to purpose and direction, guilt leads to lack of self confidence, pessimissim, feelings of unworthiness
4. Crisis of industry vs. inferiority6-12 years, industry - development of competency, creativity, and perseverance. Inferiority - feelings of hopelessness, sense of being mediocre or incompetent, withdrawal from school and peers may result (bulling)
5. Identity vs. role diffusion 12-18 Identity results in ability to make a career choice and plan for the future, inferiority creates confusion, uncertainty, indecisiveness, and inability to make a career choice
6. Intimacy vs. isolation 19-40, initimacy - ability to form intimate relationships with another person, isolation results in the development of impersonal relationships and the avoidance of career and lifestyle commitments.
7. Generativity vs stagnation40-65, positive resolution results in creativity, productivity, and concern for others. Stagnations results in selfishness and lack of interest and commitments
8. Integrity vs. despair65- death. Individuals either conclude life appreciating the uniqueness of their lives and accepting death, or feeling a sense of loss, despair and contempt for others
What is most important?developmental stage is more meaningful than exact chronological age. the SEQUENCE of those matter the most.

Section 3

Question Answer
Newbornbirth and 1 month of age
Infant1 month of age to 1 year
Toddlerleast 1 year old but not yet reached 3 years

Section 4

Question Answer
Newbornbirth to 1 month of age
indicators for normal growtheating, sleeping, elimination, and activity patterns
Apgartest done only in delivery room after birth
When is the apgar test performed?once at 1 minute and at 5 minutes immediately after birth
What does the apgar test look at?Heart rate, Respiratory effort, Muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color
How many points are each work? what's the max score?2, 10.

Section 5

Question Answer
Infantsone month to one year
characterized bychanges in height and weight, development of physical and social skills
When infant is sleepingseize the opportunity to listen to heart, lung, and abdominal sounds first
Which steps are performed first?least distressing steps
What should be saved until last?the more invasive steps of examination of the eye, ear, nose, and throat until last
What stage of Erikson's is this?trust vs. mistrust

Section 6

Question Answer
Toddlerleast 1 year but not 3 yet
changes:slower, steadier growth, fine motor skill improvement, and language development
Difficult to examine, do not takepersonally
Development and growth begin ____ before___proximally before distally

Section 7

Question Answer
Can talkbeginning social skill development
School-agebetween 6 and 10
major developmental tasks of school agecognitie and social growth
If a child is 10 and older, should they be given the option to be examined without parent?yes
like small adultprogess with head to toe

Section 8

Question Answer
Adolescence11 and 21
characterized byrapid growth, sexual maturation, and cognitive refinement
How are adolescence's examined?Alone
puberty for female10-14
puberty for male12-16