4-14-2015 #2

wumimimu's version from 2015-04-15 03:13


Question Answer
Why do microglia have lipid in them after ischemic stroke?They are eating the breakdown fragments of neurons, myelin, and necrotic debris
Which bugs invade the intestinal epithelium?Salmonella, shigella, C. jejuni, EIEC, and entamoeba histolystica
What is eccentric hypertrophy?Sarcomeres added in series; basically, ventricular dilation
What is the compensation in aortic regurgitation?Left ventricular dilation (increase in preload of LV)
What does estrogen do to TBG?Increases levels of TBG! hence increase in Total T3 and T4; however, free T3 and T4 remain unchanged
When does renal compensation for acid/base have maximal effect?3-5 days
What HCO3- values correspond to acute and chronic resp acidosis?>30 chronic resp acidosis; <30 acute resp acidosis
What innervates the cricothyroid muscle?The external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve
What runs with the superior thyroid artery?The superior thyroid vein, and the ext branch of the sup. laryngeal nerve
What does the internal br of the superior laryngeal nerve innervate?Sensory innervation above the vocal cords
How does syringomyelia present?Segmental loss of upper extremity pain and temp; upper ext lower motor neuron signs, and lower ext upper motor neuron signs in the setting of scoliosis
Which vitamin can be used in the treatment of measles infection?Vitamin A
Rosenthal fibers and granular eosinophilic bodies: what cancer?Pilocytic astrocytomaW
What does congenital toxoplasmosis present with?Hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications, and chorioretinitis; acquired infection while in utero
What is the most likely dx in heterophile negative mono-like syndrome?CMV
What kind of cells does CMV infect?Leukocytes of granulocyte/macrophage lineage
What are the causes of paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration?Breast, ovarian, uterine cancer; small cell lung cancer: these produce Anti-Yo, Anti-Hu, and Anti P/Q antibodies
Which two lipid lowering drugs can cause gall stones?Bile acid binding resins and fibrates
Ethylene glycol leads to what?Acute renal failure and accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals in the renal tubules
How to urticaria /hives look histologically?A superficial infiltrate composed of mononuclear cells and eos around dermal venules; Dermal edema and dilation of the lymphatic channels
When does epidermal spongiosis take place?Excematous dermatitis
What is one sided kidney atrophy suggestive ofRenal artery stenosis
What derm condition presents with christmas tree pattern on the back?Pityriasis rosea
What is the major prognostic determinant in bladder cancer?Tumor penetration of the bladder wall
What are the H, I and A bands representative of in sarcomere?H band: only myosin; I band: only actin; A band: all myosin
What are the two most common causes of acute pancreatitis?Gallbladder stones and alcohol
What kind of histo changes are seen in axonal reaction?Cell body enlarges, nucleus moves to the periphery, nissle substance disperses
What kind of histo changes are seen in acute neuronal injury?Shrinkage of cell body, pyknosis of the nucleus, loss of nissl substance, and eosinophilic cytoplasm
What is the latent period?The time elapsed from the initital exposure to clinically evident change in disease
What is a sig SE of ganciclovir?Neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and impaired renal function