4-14-2015 #1

wumimimu's version from 2015-04-15 01:25


Question Answer
What are all the effects which result from alpha-1 adrng. receptor stimulation?Increase in SBP(Peripheral vasculature), contraction of internal urethral spinchter (bladder), mydriasis (pupillary dilator muscle)
What are the effects which result from Beta-1 receptor stimulation?Increase in heart rate, contractility, and conduction; renin release from JG cells
What are the effects which result from Beta-2 receptor stimulation?Tocolysis (Uterus), Bronchodilation (AIrways), decrease DBP/vasodilation (skeletal muscle vasculature)
What are agents that stimulate Alpha-1 receptors?NE, phenylephrine, epinephrine, methoxamine
What are agents that stimulate alpha-2 receptors?Clonidine, methyldopa
What are agents that stimulate Beta-1 receptors?Epinephrine, isoproteronol, dobutamine, Dopamine(at higher doses)
What are agents that stimulate Beta-2 receptors?Terbutaline and ritodrine (tocolytic!), isoproterenol
The cilliary muscle of the eye responds the what NT?Ach (M3)
The pupillary dilator muscle of the eye responds to what NT?Alpha-1 receptor agonists
The pupillary sphincter of the eye responds to what NT?Ach ! (M3)
The cilliary epithelium of the eye responds to what NT?Beta adrnergic agents (B-blockers reduce aqueous humor production!)
What is the positive likelihood ratio?The ratio representing the likelihood of having the disease given a positive result (sensitivity/ (1-spec))
What is the negative likelihood ratioThe ratio representing the likelihood of hving the disease given negative result (1-sensitivity/spec)
What should a child be able to do by 12 months (gross and fine motor, language, and social)Stand, walk first steps, Throw ball, 2-pincer grasp, Say first words, Separation anxiety, follows 1-step command with gesture
What should a child be able to do by 18 months?Run, kick ball, build tower of 2-4 blocks, take off clothes, 10-25 words, identifies >/= 1 body part, understand "mine", pretend play
What should a child be able to do by 2 years?Walk up/down stairs with both feet, jump; build 6 block tower, copy a line, turn page, 50+ words, 2 word phrases, parallel play, follows 2-step command, begins toilet training
What should a child be able to do by 3 years?Walks up and down the stairs with alternating feet, rides tricycle; draws a circle, uses utensils, 3-word sentences, 75% intelligible, Knows age/gender, imaginary play,
What should a child be able to do by 4 years?Balance on 1 foot and hop, draw a square, 100% intelligible and can identify colors, cooperative play
What should a child be able to do by 5 years?Skips and walk backwards, dress/bathe self, tie shoe, copy a triangle, print letters, 5-word sentences, counts to 10, has friends, has completed toilet training
What does E. coli Lac operon code for?B-galactosidase (breaks down lactose into glucose and galactose)
How is lac operon controlled?Negatively by a repressor protein bound to operon locus and postively by cAMP-CAP bound upstream of promoter
What is the most likely organ to suffer embolic infarctions?Kidneys
What are some common sources of systemic emboli?LA/LV, atrial fibrillation, aortic aneurysm, and infective endocarditis
When will a stool osmotic gap (>100) be increasedWhen non-absorbable substances are present (lactase deficiency)
What will happen to stool pH in lactase deficiency?Bacteria will ferment lactose into short chain fatty acids and excess H+; this will result in decreased stool pH
What is seen in acute rhematic fever myocaridits?Aschoff bodies! and anistchow cells
Explain the events in the IP3 pathwayG-protein is activated, Phospholipase C cleaves membrane lipids into IP3 and DAG; IP3 releases Ca2+ and both Ca2+ and DAG activate Protein kinase C
How do interferon alpha and beta work against viral infections?Produced by virally infected cells, causes neighboring cells to express enzymes which halt ALL protein synthesis (RNase L, kinase R) when the cell encounters double-stranded RNA
How does Toxic megacolon present?abdominal pain, distension/tympany on percussion, fever, diarrhea, and signs of shock (Low BP, high heart rate)
How is toxic megacolon diagnosed?Seen in ulcerative colitis patient; diagnosed with a plain film x-ray of abdomen; barium enema/colonoscopy are contraindicates (risk of perforation)
How should toxic megacolon be treated?Conservatively: IV fluids, steroids, and immunosuppressants; if not improvement, then surgery (remove colon)
What def causes ambiguous ext genitalia in female AND virilization in mom?Aromatase deficiency
What are some common P450 inhibitors?Cimetidine, TMP, fluconazole, INH
How do cholinergic agonists lead to vasodilation?They bind to endothelial cells and increase NO production!!! they have no direct vasodilatory effects
What drug should be used to control Gestational diabetes?Insulin!
How does megaloblastic anemia occur in chronic alcoholicsFolate deficiency which results in impaired synthesis of DNA; cells can grow but cant divide
Recurrent epigastric pain with calicifications in the pancreas suggest what?Chronic pancreatitis!!! usually caused by ethanol abuse
Of the leukotrienes which ones stimulate PMN chemotaxis?5-HETE and LTB4
LTC4, D4, and E4 do what?Bronchospasm, vasoconstriction, and increased vascular permeability
What are the effects of ANP?Causes renal arteriole vasodilation, dec Na abs in prox tub/collecting duct, decreases renin secretion, dec aldo secretion, causes vascular smooth muscle relaxation and increases capillary permeability
What is the pathophys of syphilitic aortitis?Obliteration and endarteritis of vaso vasorum, inflammation, necrosis, and weakening of adventitia
The individual subunits of hemoglobin are similar to what protein?myoglobin!
What does the oxygen dissociation curve of myoglobin look like?Hyperbolic! Only contains 1 heme, there is no cooperative binding
What is seen in acute interstitial pancreatitis?Pancreas is grossly edematous, there are focal areas of fat necrosis, calcium deposition and interstitial edema seen on light microscopy
What is seen in necrotizing pancreatitis chalky white areas of necrosis interspersed with hemorrhage q
What are the complications of ankylosing spondylitis?Enthesitis (inflammation where the tendon inserts into the bone), costochondral enthesitis leads to reduced chest wall expansion, ascending aortitis (aortic insufficiency), anterior uveitis
What are the major cardiac complications of lupus?Libman sacks endocarditis, acute coronary syndrome (due to thrombosis or arteritis): this can lead to MI in the presence of normal coronaries
Which bacteria can cause diarrhea with only a small inoculum?Shigella, campy jejuni, entamoeba histolytica, and giardia
What are markes of neuroendocrine origin?neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin, synaptophysin, neurofilaments
What are the two common cardiac abn in patients with Marfan's?Cystic medial degeneration of aorta, and MVP
The position of the ureters in the true pelivs?Ureters cross over the ext illiac artery and under the gonadal vessels and uterine vessels; and then lie antermedial to internal illiac artery and medial to gonadal vessels
What are the clinical features of lead poisoning?ABdominal colic, (lead colic), lead line (blue pigment at gumtooth line), wrist/foot drop, microcytic hypochromic anemia
Diabetic mononeuropathy causes damage how?Ischemic nerve damage
What are the most common cranial nerves to be damaged in diabetic neuropathy?CN 3 (most common), 4, and 6
How is CN 3 compression different from mononeuropathy?In mononeuropathy, pupil constriction and accomodation are intact (since autonomic fiber are on the outside of the nerve, they are not affected by ischemic damage)