4-11-2015 #1

wumimimu's version from 2015-04-12 02:05


Question Answer
What gene is missing in Turner's syndrome?SHOX gene on chromosome X
What is the etiology of Turners syndrome?Usually paternal nondisjunction
What is robertsonian translocation?The long arms of two acrocentric chromosomes fuse and the short arms are lost
What is Sheehans syndrome?Ischemic necrosis of the pituitary; the pituitary becomes more vascular and enlarged during preg bc of estrogen; and when there is blood loss (postpartum hemorrhage), sheehans syndrome can result
What is pituitary apoplexy?Hemorrhage into a preexisting pituitary adenoma
What is the tx for CMV induced retinitis in HIV patient?Ganciclovir, Foscarnet, or cidofovir
What are the side effects of ganciclovir?Severe neutropenia (should not be used in advanced HIV patient)
What are the side effects of foscarnet?Hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and seizures
Untreated OSA is associated with what ?Pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure; also systemic hypertension
Most common cause of vertical diplopia?Trochlear nerve palsy
Osteoprotegrin?Secreted by osteoblasts; acts as a decoy receptor and binds to RANK-L, preventing osteoclast inactivation
How does PTH stimulate osteoclasts?Through osteoblasts: stimulate production of RANK-L and M-CSF;
Hypoestrogen causes what to occur on osteoclasts?Increased RANK expression
What is the pringle maneuver?Compression of the hepatoduodenal ligament; if RUQ doesnt stop bleeding, then you most likely have bleed of IVC or hepatic veins
Crohns disease is associated with what kind of kidney stones?Calcium oxalate kidney stones
Why do anorexic patients have amenorrheaLoss of pulsatile release of GnRH
What is seen in histology of HCM?Myofibrillar disarray, fibrosis, and myocyte hypertrophy
What mutation is responsible for HCM/beta myosin heavy chain
Through what signalling pathway does PTH exert its effects?Gprotein/adenylyl cyclase pathway and an increase in cAMP
In lesch nyhan syndrome, what enzyme is upregulated? PRPP amidotransferase: more purines have to be made de novo
Insulin activates protein phosphotases, what do they do?Dephosphorylate glycogen synthase, activating it; and dephosphorylate fructose 1,6 bisphosphotase, inactivating it
What is the immune process in RA?Cartilage acts as an autoantigen and stimulates CD4 cells, these cells activate B-cells and Those cells secrete RF antibodies
When is Rifampin used as monotherapy?Prophylaxis in N. Meningitides, and H influenza exposure
WHen is Rifampin used in multitherapy?Typical and atypical mycobacterial infection and staph endocarditis
What is the formula for Odds Ratio?ad/bc OR (a/b)/ (c/d); Used in cohort studies AND case control; measures the association between association and outcome
What will damage to stapedius (or facial nerve) cause?Hyperacusis
What does the tensor tympani muscle do and what innervates it?Contracts the tympanic membrane medially; dampens sound transmission; innervated by CN V3
Who are the non-lactose fermenting, oxidase negative bugs and how do you differentiate them?Shigella and salmonella and proteus ; salmonella and proteus are H2S producing(black color on TSI agar) and shigella is not
What is the most important virulence factor of shigella?Mucosal invasion; shiga toxin (which inhibits 60 S ribosome, plays a lesser role)
What are the two most common shigella in indust and nonindust countries?Shigella sonnei and flexneri respectively
The presence of MNG cells with intranuclear inclusions suggets what?Either HSV-1 or VZV infection
Craniopharyngiomas: derivation? appearance?They are derived from Rathke's pouch; they have solid cystic appearance and the cysts are often lined by stratified squamous epithelium and contain cholesterol rich fluid; calcifications are often seen on imaging
What is the histologic appearance of Burkitt's lymphoma?Diffuse medium sized lymphocytes and a high proliferation index
What EBV associated cancers are HIV patients predisposed to?EBV-induced systemic B cell lymphomas and almost all primary CNS lymphomas
What is the presentation of billiary atresia?Jaundice, acholic stools, and dark urine; a firm enlarged liver will also be present
What is the histology of biliary atresia?Marked intrahepatice bile ductule proliferation, portal tract edema and fibrosis, and parenchymal cholestasis
What are the labs seen in biliary atresia?Elevated conjugated bilirubin, ALP, and GGt
What is the result of untreated biliary atresia?Billiary cirrhosis by age 6 months
What is the major virulence factor of S. epidermis causing foreign body infection?Production of biofilms
What factors discourage Vit D formation in the skin?Dark coloring, sunscreen, old age, and northern latitudes
What does excessive sunlight exposure do to previt D3?Shunts it to inactive metabolites including tachysterol and lumisterol
What are the watershed areas of the GI tract?Splenic flexure and distal sigmoid colon
What are the levels of PTH, calcium, and phosphorus in osteoporosis?They are NORMAL
What cells make up follicular lymphoma and what does histology look like?Centrocytes and centroblasts; aggregates of follicles take over the normal lypmh node
What is PR interval in AV nodal delay?PR > 0.2 seconds
What is the most common benign liver tumor?Cavernous hemagioma
How does a cavernous hemangioma present?Usually asymptomatic; maybe some abdominal pain/right upper quadrant fullness
What does cavernous hemangioma look like histologically?Cavernous blood filled vascular spaces lined by single epithelial layer
How does tinea corporis (ring worm) present?An annular scaling plaque with well-demarcated raised erythematous borders and central clearing
What are the 5 types of ezcematous dermatitis?Contact, atopic, photo, drug-related, and primary irritant
What kind of histology is seen in eczematous dermatitis?Spongiosis! epidermal accumulation of edematous fluid in the intercellular spaces
Acanthosis is an increase in which epidermal layer?Stratum spinosum
When is dyskeratosis (premature keritinization of individual cells) seen?SCC
What is a glomus body?Encapsulated neurovascular organd found under the nail, pads of fingers and toes, and ears; they are important in blood shunting for thermoregulation
How does glomus tumor typically present?A painful red-blue lesion under the nail
Differential cyanosis restricted to lower body in a child is most suggestive of what?A patent ductus arteriosus with reversal of shunt

Recent badges