4-10-2015 #2

wumimimu's version from 2015-04-11 20:12


Question Answer
Parvovirus B19 infection in adults?Causes a self-limited arthritis that involves the PIP, MCP, knees, and ankle joints in symmetric fashion
What are the histologic changes of aging skin?Thinning of the dermis and epidermis, flattening of dermoepidermal junction, decreased number of fibroblasts, and decreased synthesis/increased breakdown of elastin and collagen
What are the drugs to treat C. diff?Oral Metranidazole (mild to mod cases), oral vancomycin (severe cases) and fidaxomicin (recurrent cases)
What is fidaxomicinOral Antibiotic used to tx recurrent cases of C. diff; inhibits RNA polymerase; narrow spectrum, minimal absorption
What is heart apex made of and where is it located?The left ventricle makes up the apex; 5th intercostal space in the left midclavicular line; covered by the left lung
Efficacy of acyclovir in HSVand VZV compared to CMV and EBV?This guanosine analog works better in HSV and VZV because of greater phosphorlyation by viral thymidine kinase; This enzyme differs in CMV and EBV
Which branches does the splenic artery give off?Short gastrics, pancreatic, and left gastroepiploic arteries
Which drugs are effective against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa?Ticarcillin, Piperacillin, Ceftazidime, and Cefapim, Amkicin, gentamicin, and tobramicin, ciproflox, levoflox, aztreonam, imipenem, and carbapenem
How are inhaled particles removed from the bronchial tree?Most are removed via mucocilliary transport; Only past the terminal bronchioles, do macrophages play a role in clearance
How far in the bronchial tree do goblet cells extend to?Up to the terminal bronchioles; in the terminal bronchioles, club cells which produce surfactant take over
What cofactor is used in the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine and tyrosine to DOPA?BH4
BH4 is a cofactor in the synthesis of what?Tyrosine, DOPA, NO, and serotonin
What are the direct 10a inhibitors?Rivaroxaban, and apixaban
What is pancoast syndrome characterized by?Ipsilateral horners syndrome, atrophy of hand muscles, rib destruction, and pain in C8, T1-2 distribution
Li Fraumeni syndrome?AD; multiple family members with cancer <45; tumors of breast, brain, adrenal cortex, and sarcomas are most common
Patients with homocystinuria die from?Thromboembolism
Which antibodies have highest specificity for RA?Anti-CCP
What are the troponemal and nontreponemal tests?FTA-ABS and MHA-TP are treponemal; VDRL and RPR are nontreponemal
Which tests in syphillis are used to confirm response to therapy?NON-treponemal: VDRL and RPR
What is the clinical presentation of H. ducreyi infectionPainful shallow genital ulcers (chancroid) + swollen inguinal lymph nodes
What is the best way to visualize treponema pallidum?Dark field microscopy; NOT gram stain (too thin) and NOT culture (they are very difficult to culture)
Where is the prostate located on cT scan?Between the anal canal and the pubic symphysis
What is the most important virulence factor in E.Coli meningitis?K1 capsule
Where are Lipid A and O antigen located?Both components of the LPS; lipid A is responsible for septic shock
What is mech of action of odansetron?INhibits serotonin receptors
What is very specific finding for arsenic poisoning?Garlic odor to breath
What is the antidote for arsenic poisoning?Dimercaprol (displaces arsenic from sulfahydryl groups on enzymes)
Where do peptic ulcers commonly occur?GE junction, stomach antrum, and proximal duodenum
Gastric ulcers are commonly associated with?H. pylori and NSAID use; can be malignant! MALT or adenocarcinoma
Painless hematuria 2-3 days following URI?IgA nephropathy (Bergers), IgA IC in the mesangium of glomerulus;
AmatoxinsBind to RNA polymerase 2 and inhibits mRNA synthesis
Which kidney stones are radiolucent?Uric acid stones
Peptide YYReleased by illeum and colon and bind to ECL cells in stomach; inhibit histamine release in response to gastrin; downreglates acid secretion
What can cause isolates systolic HTN?Age related stiffening of the aorta and its proximal branches
What to Actinic keratosis lesions look like histologically/Hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, and atypical keratinocytes
Dermatofibroma?Benign proliferation of fibroblasts; occur on lower extremity as solitary nodules
Psoriasis is characterized by what histologically?Clubbed rete ridges, hyperkeratosis, PMNs in stratum corneum and perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates
What drugs decrease bone formation?Glucocorticoids, TZD's, and unfractionated heparin
How do PPI's lead to osteoperosis?Decreased calcium absorption
How to anticonvulsants (that induce P450) lead to osteoperosis?Increase vitamin D catabolism
What is a lingual thyroid?Failure of the thyroid gland to descend;
What is seen 1-5 days after MI ?Coagulation necrosis and PMN infiltrate
What is seen 5-10 days after MI?Macrophages phagocytosing dead tissue
What is seen 10-14 days after MI?Neovascularization and granulation tissue

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