4-10-2015 #1

wumimimu's version from 2015-04-11 02:17


Question Answer
What is chronic type B gastritis?Typically affects gastric antrum and is associated with H. pylori infection;
What is chronic H. pylori infection of the gastric antrum put you at risk for?Gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma
What five enzymes does branched chain a-ketoacid DH utilize?Thiamine PP, FAD, NAD, lipoate, and Coenzyme A
What is HbS antigen?Noninfective envelope glycoprotein that forms spherules and tubules; does not correlate with viral replication
HbCantigen?Core nucleocapsid protein that assembles virions
HbeAntigen?Both nucleocapsid core protein that assembles virions and precore component that directs secretion into blood; marker of high infectivity
HbX antigen?Transcriptional transactivator protein necessary for viral replication; plays a role in HCC developement
What translocation is mantle cell lymphoma associated with?t(11:14): Cyclin D1
What does the first aortic arch form?Part of maxillary artery
What does second aortic arch form?Hyoid and Stapedial artery
What does the third aortic arch form?Common carotid and prox internal carotid
What does the fourth aortic arch form?On right, the prox part of subclavian artery, and on left, the aortic arch
What does the 6th aortic arch form?proximal part of the pulmonary arteries and the PDA
What signaling pathway does IFN-gamma use?JAK/STAT...then to nucleus for transcription
What is the presentation of halothane-induces hepatotoxicity?Fever, nausea, arthlagias, mylagias, anoerexia, rash, hepatomegaly, and jaundice
What are the lab values seen in halothane induced hepatotoxicity?Increased PT and elevated aminotransferases
What is the histology of anesthetic induced and viral hepatitis?Both have same! Centrilobular necrosis, and inflammation of portal tracts and parenchyma
Why is the blood in the left atrium/ventricle at a lower oxygen concentration than in the pulmonary veins?Deoxgenated blood from the bronchial arteries and thesbian (cardiac) veins directly enter the left heart circulation
The severity of mycobacterium leprae infection is dictated by what?The strength of the individuals's Th1 response
What are the signs and sx of mycobact. leprae infection?Skin thickening, loss of hair in patches and hypopigmentation, leonine facies, paresis, regional anesthesia, testicular destruction, and blindness
What kind of transmembrane protein is CFTR?ATP-binding cassette transmembrane ion transporter; pumps chloride ions out of epithelial cells against their concentration gradient
What are the triggers for Hemolytic anemia in G6PD deficiency?Infections, drugs (antimalarials, dapsone, sulfonamides), fava beans, and DKA
What can be used to reverse CN poisoning?Nitrites and sodium thiosulfate (which combines with CN to form thiocyanate)
How are nitrites effective in CN poisoning?They cause methemoglobinemia; this form of hemoglobin (Ferric iron) binds to CN, and CN has a greater affinity for this than mitochondrial enzymes; hence you can sequester the CN
What are the sx of CN poisoning?Cutaneous flushing, tachycarida, tachypnea, headache, nausea, vomiting, confusion, weakness
What are the lab values seen in CN poisoning/High venous oxygen blood content, and lactic acidosis
What is the usual outcome of ATN?Majority of patients experience tubular re-epithelialization; However, in those with multi-organ dysfunction, renal function might be permanently impaired
What determines if a plaque will rupture?NOT size, but rather stability (strength of the fibrous cap); the fibrous cap can be weakened by increased intimal inflammation and macrophages releasing metalloproteinases which degrade collagen
What distinguishes strep pneumoniae from strep viridians?Strep pneum. is optochin sensitive and bile SOLUBLE
Does candida in the sputum indicate disease?No. It is a common inhabitant of the GI tract (include oral cavity)
In what kind of patients does disseminated candidiasis occur?Neutropenic ones
Where are the common locations of charcot-bouchard aneurysms?Small penetrating arteries of the cerebral arteries: basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and pons
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy predisposes to what kind of hemorrhage?Lobar/cortical parenchymal hemorrhage (most common cause)
Rupture of saccular aneurysm causes what kind of hemorrhage>Subarachnoid
What is the most common type of intracranial hemorrhage in children?AV malformation
Why do signet cell carcinomas look like that?Signet cells are formed bc these cells contain mucin which pushes the nucleus to periphery
What are the sequelae of villous adenomas?Obstruction (if they get large), bleeding, secretory diarrhea (they secrete mucous!), they have high risk of transforming to adenocarcinoma
What can be used to treat Graves Opthalmopathy?Glucocorticoids!
What can occur with Graves opthalmopathy following radioactive iodine treatment?It can worsen! (especially in smokers)
What are the suffixes -mab, -cept, and -nib standing for/mab= monoclonal antibody, cept= receptor, and nib= kinase inhibitor
Isoniazid needs to be activated by what in order to be effective>Mycobacterium catalase peroxidase enzyme
How is B12 protected from degradation by stomach acidsHaptocorrin (R protein) released by the salivary glands
Stewart-treves syndrome?Chronic lymphedema usually predisposes to ipsilateral angiosarcoma; usually poor prognosis bc tumor is spread by the time of dx
Why does thiopental anesthetic agent have rapid recovery?It quickly leaves the blood and redistributes to tissues
Why does transposition of great vessels occur?Failure of aorticopulmonary septum to spiral normally during septation of truncus arteriosus
What is the treatment of somatic symptom disorder?Increase in the number of regular visits with same provider; focus on functional improvement rather than symptoms
What occurs in subfalcine herniation?Cingulate gyrus slips under the falx cerebri
What are the consequences of uncal herniation (transtentorial)Compression of ipsilateral CN3, posterior cerebral artery, contralateral cerebral peduncle (corticospinal tract) rupture of basilar artery leading to brainstem hemorrhage (fatal)
What are the sx of multiple myelomas?Bone resorption/mult fractures, hypercalcemia, amyloidosis, susceptibility to infection, bence jone proteins and kidney damage, normocytic anemia,
How do pilocytic astrocytomas appear macroscopically?Solid and cystic lesion; microscopically, rosenthal fibers; most common childhood brain tumor
Microscopic marker of ependymomas/Rosette formation
What would cause stable angina?An atheroma lesion (without an overlying thrombus) occluding more than 75% of the coronary artery lumen
How is cholesterol excreted from the body?Made into bile, and also excreted in bile (free cholesterol)
How is free cholesterol in bile solubilized?Phosphotidylcholine and bile salts form micelles entrap the cholesterol q
Why does anorexia produce amennorhea?Hypogonadotropic amernorrhea; Low FSH and LH, leads to low everything else

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