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4.1

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bikecote's version from 2016-09-07 07:52

Section 1

Question Answer
distal stimulusobject or event in the outside world
proximal stimulusenergies from outside world that directly reach our sense organs
psychophysicsapproach to perception that relates the characters of physical stimuli to the sensory experiences they produce
absolute thesholdsmallest quantity of a stimulus that you can detect
difference thresholdsmallest amount of stimulus must be increased or decreased so that an individual can detect the difference
just noticeable differencesmallest difference that can be detected
Webers lawsize of the difference threshold is proportional to the intensity of the standard stimulus
Fechners lawstrength of a sensation is proportional to the intensity of the standard stimuli
perceptual sensitivityorganism's ability to detect a signal
decision criteriaorgansims rule of how much evidence it needs before responding
signal detection theorytheory that percieving or not perceiving a stimulus is actually about whether a momentary sensory experience is due to background noise or to background noise plus a signal
payoff matrixpattern of benefits and costs associated with certain types of responses
transductionprocess through which a physical stimulus is converted into a signal within the NS
sensory codingprocess through which the NS represents the qualities of the incoming stimulus
specifity theoryproposal that different sensory qualities are signaled by different quality-specific neurons
pattern theoryproposal that diff sensory qualities are encoded by specific patterns of firing among relevant neurons
sensory adaptationprocess by which the sensitivity stimulus declines if the stimulus is presented for an extended period of time
kinesthesissensation generated by receptors in the semicircular canals of the inner ear that inform us about the heads orientation & movements
skin sensesgroup of senses, including pressure, warmth, cold, pain through which we gain info about our immediate surroundings
nociceptorsreceptors in skin that give rise to sense of pain, respond to various forms of tissue damage & temp extremes
adelta fibersrapid transmission of info & first sign of pain
c fibersunmylinated & slower in transmission, dull aches that remain after muscle injury
gate control theorypain sensations must pass through the neutral "gate" in order to reach the brain & can be blocked @ gate by neurons that inhibit signals from noinceptors
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Section 2

Question Answer
olfactory epitheliummucus membrane at the top of nasal cavity; contains olfactory receptor neurons that respond odorants
glomerulisites in the brain's olfactory bulb where signals from smell receptors converge
pheromonesbiologically produces odorants that convery to another members of species
papillaestructure on tongue that contains the taste buds, taste receptors
soundwavessuccessive pressure variations in the air that vary in amplitude and wavelength
amplitudeheight of wave crest, intensity
frequency# of peaks, pitch
cochleacoiled structure in inner ear that contains the basilar membrane
eardrumtaut membrane that transmits vibrations caused by sound waves from auditory canal to ossicles in middle ear
oval windowmembrane separating middle ear from inner ear
auditory ossicles3 bones of middle ear transmit vibes from eardrum to oval window
basilar membranemembrane running the length of cochlea; soundwaves caused a deformation of this membrane, bending hair cells in cohlea thus stimulating auditory receptors
hair cellsin cochlea & lodged between basilar and other membranes above
place theoryregions of basilar membrane respond to particular sound frequencies & nervous system interprets excitation from diff basilar regions as diff pithces
timbrequality of sound apart from its pitch or loudness; timbre enables us to distinguish diff things
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Section 3

Question Answer
retinal imageimage of Ob that is projected on retina. size increases and decreases
photoreceptorslight sensitive cell located on the retina that converts light energy into neural impulse
rodsrespond to lower light intensity (colorless)
conesrespond to greater light intensities (color)
fovearetinas center, lots of cones, greatest activity
optic nervefibers that go from retina to brain
photo pigmentchanges form in response to light
lateral inhibitionpattern of interaction among neurons in VS in which activity in one neuron inhibits adjacent neuron responses
trichromatic color visionhow we see color, 3 cones
opponent process theoryproposes 3 pairs of color antagonists, excitation of one neuron inhibits another
receptive feildparticular cell in visual system, pattern of retinal stim that most affectively causes cell to fire
feature detectorsneurons in retina or brain that respond to specific stimulus (movement, orientation)
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