4-05-2015 #2

wumimimu's version from 2015-04-14 01:10


Question Answer
Which enzymes is B1 a cofactor for?Pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and transketolase! (erythrocyte transketolase activity is used to dx thiamine deficiency)
In Wernickes, damage to which parts of the brain occurThe periaqueductal grey matter and the mamillary bodies
What is the goal of stimulus control therapy in insomnia treatment?To dissociate the bedroom from stimulating activities and the fear of not being able to sleep
What is MEN2B associated with? Sx?Marfanoid habitus, pheochromocytoma, medullary thryoid carcinoma, and neuromas of oral and intestinal mucosa
Antiphospholipid syndrome?Hypercoagulable state; frequent thromboses and spontaneous abortions
What are the sx of von willebrand diseaase?LIfelong mucocutaneous bleeding; gingiva, epistaxis, and menorrhagia
What are the sx of scarlet fever?Fever, pharyngitis,sand-paper like rash, cicumoral pallor, and strawberry tongue
What causes scarlet fever?Strep pyogenes and its pyrogenic exotoxins
With what med do you treat scarlet fever?Penicillin V
What are the causes of secondary hyperaldosteronism?Renal artery stenosis, malignant hypertension, diuretic use, and reninoma
What is methemoglobinemia?When ferrous iron is oxidized to ferric iron
Pentazocine?A weak partial agonist of mu receptors;
Levorphanol An opioid; agonist at mu receptors
At what CD4 count does CMV retinitis (or any CMV infection) occur in AIDS patients?<100
What should be suspected in patient who has stroke after DVT?Patent foramen ovale! It is patent in 20-30% of adults; any increase in RA pressure can cause a right to left shunt
Who is at greatest risk for CMV pneumonitis?Transplant patients
Vernet syndrome?Lesion at jugular formation: dysfunction of CN 9,10,11
What nerves traverse the internal acoustic meatus?CN 7, and 8
What does the superior orbital fissure contain?CN 3, 4, V1, and 6; sympathetic fibers, and ophthalmic vein
What does the optic canal contain?CN2, opthalmic artery,and central retinal vein
What traverses through the cribiform plateCN 1 (olfactory)
What can combined use of non-dihydropyridine Ca channe blockers and beta blockers causeSevere hypotension and bradycardia
How does epinephrine raise blood glucose?Causes glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis from liver; decreases skeletal m uptake of glucose and increases alanine release; causes TG breakdown in fatty acids to be used as gluconeogenesis substrates
How is syphillis treated?Spirochetes are universally sensitive to penicillin! `
How does penicillin work?It is D-Ala D-Ala analog that binds to transpeptidase enzyme and inhibits it from building the cell wall
Where does the IVC lie?Anterior and to right of vertebral body and medial to the descending portion of the duodenum
What do the urethral (urogenital folds) fuse to form in males? What abn can result?Ventral shaft of the penis; if fusion not complete, can result in hypospadia
What are the sx and complications of ADPKD?Gross hematuria, flank pain, HTN, UTIs, kidney stones, liver cysts, intracranial aneurysms
Aldolase B deficiency sx?Vomiting and hypoglycemia 20-30 min after ingesting fructose; failure to thrive, hepatomegaly, and jaundice
How does Hep B cause liver damage?The virus itself is not cytopathic; its antigens expressed on the surface of hepatocytes cause CD8 T cells to attack!
What are the three morphologic types of pneumonia?Bronchopneumonia (patchy inflammation of several lobules); interstitial pneumonia (inflammation confined to alveolar walls) Lobar: involves entire lobe of lung
What are the four stages of lobar pneumonia?Congestion(24 hours): vascular dilation, exudate in alveoli contain bacteria; Red hepatization (2-3 days): Exudate contains RBCs, fibrin, and PMNS; Gray hepatization (4-6 days): exudate contains fibrin, PMNs, and broken RBCs; Resolution: enzymatic digestion of exudate
What kind of change in the liver does hemochromatosis result in ?Micronodular cirrhosis
What transports iron into enterocytes from gut?Apical DMT1
What kind of histological changes are seen in bronchial epithelium of chronic smoker?Squamous bronchial metaplasia (similar to the mechanism and reasoning of barrets) premalignant lesion
What are the risk factors for forming sqamous cell carcinoma of espohagus?Smoking, Alcohol, and consuming N-Nitroso compounds
What are the risk factors for adenocarcinoma of esophagus?GERD/barretts, Obesity, and tobacco
When alanine is converted to pyruvate, where does its amino group go?Transferred to alpha-keto glutarate to form glutamate, which is then broken down to ammonia, which is then made into urea, and excreted

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