kevchan's version from 2015-10-22 02:42


Question Answer
what are industrial engineers conduct studies, and develop and supervise programs to achieve the best use of equipment, human resources, technology, materials and procedures to enhance efficiency and productivity
industrial engineers are concerned withdeals with people as well as processes, materials and information
3 related developmentsimpact of operations research, impact of digital computers and impact of service industries
operations challengesdesign products that are safe and reliable, improve productivity, improve quality, provide a safe workplace, reduce environmental impacts on products and processes
improve efficiencyeffective way to use basic factors of production like people, machines, materials and energy
improve productivityincrease in quantitative parameters
other activities of industrial engineersdesign of goods and services, design of inventory control system, design of quality control system and improve/ design facility layout, manage the supply chain
production operationsrelated to product, service, process, production planning and control ie: select equipment, determine the best production process, perform inventory analysis
management systemspersonnel, financial and cost systems ie: design training programs, design procedures for hiring and selection of employee
corporate servicescomprehensive planning ie: specify long term goals, select suppliers, determine the location of the plant


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what is a modelan approximation of the real system
why make model instead of working with real systemeasier, cheaper, faster, less risky compared to real system
types of modelsiconic, analog, symbolic
analog modelrepresented using graphs and has actual properties
iconic modellooks like and has actual properties of real
symbolic modelsymbols to represent properties of real
uses of modelscomm., training, prediction, decision making
guidelines in formulating a modelassumptions, validity vs verification, trade-off between accuracy and utility, garbage in, garbage out, iterative process.


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operationsa function or system that transforms inputs into outputs of greater value
3 primary functions of a firmmarketing, finance, operations
operations can be viewed asthe technical core because it has the greater number of people and requires the largest investments, management improve efficiency, reduce cost of operations
primary processes is whenconverting raw material or product to different product
secondary processes is whenprimary process product require more processing


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companies are increasingly global becausereduces costs, improves supply chain, better goods and services, attract and retain global talent
global companies are/havemore customers, cheaper resources, competition, risky, difficult quality control
global companies difficult manageproduction different parts world, problems one part of world affect operations, difficult communication among different branches
trends in operationsintense competition, global markets, importance of strategy, product/service variety and mass customization, quality and flexibility, technology, worker involvement, environment, ethical concerns
different competition strategiescompeting on costs( eliminating all costs), competing on quality (pleasing a customer with quality), competing on flexibility (produce a wide variety of products, introduce new products, modify existing ones quickly, respond to customers need), competing on speed ( fast move, fast adaptations)


Question Answer
different production strategiesmake to order, make to stock, assemble to order
make to order critical issuesto satisfy the customers, to minimize the required time to complete the order
make to stock critical issuesforecasting the demand, maintaining inventory level that meets customer service goals
assemble to order critical issuesinventory level, on time delivery, satidfy customers


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types of processesprojects, batch production. mass production, continuous production
projectsone of a kind production for an individual/customer, large sequential process, flexible process, few customers, intensive customer involvement
project characteristicsclose customer contact, latest technology, non-repetitive, small customer base, expensive
batch productiona production system that processes items in small groups or batches to customer order workers and machines are general purpose, batches move through many different machine centers, fluctuating demand, short product runs of a wide variety of products
batch production characteristicsflexibility, quality, high per-unit costs, frequent changes in product mix, complex scheduling problems, lengthy job completion times, variations in capacity requirements
mass productionmore standardized productions, larger quantities than batch production, products are made to stock, demand is stable, volume is high, usually associated with assembly lines
mass production characteristicsefficiency, low per-unit cost, ease of manufacture and control, speed, high cost o equipment, difficulties to adapting to changes in demand and technology
continuous productionhighly automated system, continuous operation, output is also continuous
continuous production characteristicsefficiency, ease of control, enormous capacity, large investment in plant and equipment, limited variety of items that can be processed, difficulties of keeping pace with new technology
process choice depends ona firms strategy, type of products, types of customers, volume of demand


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supply chainnetwork of organizations that extends downstream to customers and upstream to suppliers
coordination of supply chain activities in order toincrease the value to final customers (ie. determining suppliers, transportation vendors, warehouses and inventory levels, distributors)
benefits of supply chain managementreduce costs, reduce uncertainty along the chain, maintain proper inventory levels in the chain, eliminate rush activities, provide good customer service, improve quality, improve efficiency
bullwhip effectinaccurate information sharing through the supply chain
bullwhip effect leads toexcessive inventory, poor customer service, ineffective transportation use, misused manufacturing capacity and lost revenues
bullwhip effect causesforecast errors, anticipation of shortage, trade promotion, price fluctuation
types of decision makinglong-term, medium-term, short term


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standard timetime required to produce a product at a workstation with the following three conditions - a qualified, well-trained operator (at least 2 weeks experience at the job), working at a normal pace, doing a specific task
standard time is the time requiredby an average worker to do the job under normal conditions
importance of standard timeincrease of productivity, provide valuable information for planning and decision making
stopwatch procedure consists of three stagesanalysis, measurement, synthesis
steps of a stopwatch time studyanalyze the job, breakdown the job into elements, study the job using a stopwatch, determine the number of cycles, rate the worker's performance (RF), apply allowances, check for logic, publish the time standard
rating an operator is based on four factorsskill, consistency, working conditions, effort (operator's speed)
allowances areextra time added to the normal time to make the time standard practical and attainable
allowances fall into three categoriespersonal (eg washroom, talking to a friend), fatigue (eg coffee breaks, work breaks), delay (eg waiting for instructions, machine setups, maintenance)
normal time =average time * rating factor
standard time =normal time + allowances


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dimensions of quality productsperformance, features, reliability, conformance, durability, serviceability, aesthetic, safety
dimensions of quality servicestime and timeliness, completeness, courtesy, consistency, accessibility, accuracy, responsiveness, atmosphere
two ways quality improves profitabilitysales gains, reduced costs
sales gainimprove response, flexible
cost of achieving good quality (quality control costs)prevention of costs (eg. quality planning costs, product design costs), appraisal costs (eg. inspection and testing, test equipment costs)
costs of the consequences of bad quality (quality failure costs)internal failure costs (eg. scrap costs, rework costs, process downtime costs) and external failure costs (customer complaint costs, product return costs, warranty claim costs).
total quality managementin order to make sure the products and services have the quality they have been designed for, a commitment throughout the organization is required
principles of TQMcustomer oriented, leadership, strategic planning, employee responsibility, continuous improvement, cooperation, statistical methods, training and education
Shewart's PDCA Modelidentify the pattern and make a plan, test the plan, is the plan working, implement the plan, document
benchmarkingevaluate or check by comparing to a standard or best practice
six sigmabusiness management strategy to improve quality of process - identify and remove causes of defects, minimize variability
six sigma is a process with99.9997% accuracy, 3.4 defects per million.