316 Q6

ndifranco94's version from 2015-09-15 19:46


Question Answer
Saturated solndissolved solute in equilibrium w/ undissolved solute (solid state)
Solubilityconc of solute in a saturated soln AT A CERTAIN TEMP
Solubility is temperaturedependent
Unsaturated solndissolved soln in conc below solubility
Supersaturated solndissolved soln in conc higher than solubility
Polarity of a solvent is measured bydielectric constant (e)
Higher e meanshigher polarity
Polar solventshigh e, therefore reduce attraction b/n ions in crystals
Amphiprotic polar solventscan act as acid or base to break covalent bond
How do polar solvents solvate molecules?dipole interaction, H-bonding
Ex of amphiprotic solventH2O, alcohol
Nonpolar solvente<10, not able to dissolve ions of strong and weak electrolytes
Nonpolar solvents can dissolvenonpolar organic compounds
Semipolar solventse=30, ketones and alcohols
Semipolar solvents are used tobring about miscibility of polar and nonpolar liquids
Miscibilitymutual solubility of liquid components in soln
Complete miscibility2 liquids form homogrneous phase at any proportion, like-like
Partial miscilibilityhomogeneous phase forms w/in certain temp/conc range, otehrwise phase separation
Temperature miscibilitycritical factor
Additivesenhance or reduce misbility, if more soluble in one of two liquids = less miscible, if equally soluble in two liquids = more miscible
Blendingadditive w/ equal solubility in two liquids inc miscibility
Ideal solution solubility dpeneds ontemp, melt point, molar heat of fusion
In real solutionshave to consider activity
Strong electrolytes in watersoluble
Ksp =solubility product
Common iondecreases solubility of slightly soluble electrolyte
non-common ionincreases solubility of slightly soluble electrolyte
Cosolventcan inc solubility of nonelctrolytes + unionized drug
Two factors that can inc solubility of weak electrolytes?pH and cosolvent(s)
Other factors for solubitilysurfactants, complexations, size, polymorphism
Common excipientPEG
Partition coeffmeasures affinity for diff solvents