315 Community Exam 1

olanjones's version from 2017-05-16 03:36

Public Health Functions

Question Answer
Core Functions of Public Health NursingAssessment of community, Health policy development, Assurance services are provided
Primary prevention correlates with which stage of Natural Hx of Disease model?Susceptibility - Primary focuses on preventing the health condition before it occurs (immunizations, education)
Secondary prevention correlates with which stage of Natural Hx of Disease model?Sub-clinical - Secondary focuses on early detection through diagnosis and intervention (screening)
Tertiary prevention correlates with which stage of Natural Hx of Disease model?Clinical & Recovery/Disability/Death - Tertiary focuses on preventing further deterioration (physical therapy, diabetic foot care)
Focus of Community-oriented nursing practice?Community diagnosis & investigation of major health problems, health surveillance, monitoring & eval of community health status (prevent disease/disability; promote/protect/maintain health)
Focus of Public Health nursing practice?Community as a whole & effect of community's health status & resources on health of individuals, families, & groups - It is a type of community-oriented nursing
Focus of Community-based nursing practice?Acute & chronic care and provision of comprehensive, coordinated & continuous services (Do not usually provide care for every aggregate)
Steps of the Prevention Science FrameworkDefine problem; Identify Risk/Protect factors; Intervention, Implement/Eval
What are social determinants of health?Factors that influence a patient's health (Income, Education, Race/Ethnicity, Transportation, Housing, Insurance, Food access, Complex health needs)
4 goals of Healthy People 20201. Attain high-quality/longer lives free of preventable disease
2. Achieve health equity
3. Create social/physical environment that promote good health
4. Promote quality of life/development across all life stages

Responsibilities of Public Health Nursing

Question Answer
Providecare to the disabled in their homes, including teaching of caregivers
Maintainhealthful environments
Teachabout health promotion & prevention of disease & injury
Identifythose with inadequate standards of living & untreated illnesses & disabilities & refer them for services
Preventand report neglect & abuse
Advocatefor adequate standards of living & healthcare services
Collaborateto develop appropriate, adequate, acceptable health care services
Carefor oneself & participate in professional development activities
Ensurequality nursing care & engage in nursing research

Scope & Standards of Public Health Nursing

Question Answer
What is the purpose of the Scope & Standards of Public Health Nursing? Provides guidance in the form of standards & competencies for generalist and the advanced public health nurses
Assessmentcollects comprehensive data pertinent to the health status of populations
Population Dx & Prioritiesanalyzes assmnt data to determine the population diagnoses and priorities
Outcome Identification identifies expected outcomes for a plan that is based on population diagnoses and priorities
Planningdevelops a plan that reflects best practices by identifying strategies, action plans, and alternatives to attain expected outcomes
Implementationimplements the identified plan by partnering with others (coordination, health ed & promotion, consultation, & regulatory activities)
Evaluationevaluates the health status of the population

Public Health Nursing (MN) Wheel & 10 Essential Public Health Services

Question Answer
3 levels of practice in the Minnesota Wheel?Individual/Household, Community, Systems
Which interventions involve helping individuals/community?Surveillance -- Screening; Referral & follow-up -- Delegated functions; Health teaching-- Consultation
What interventions involve helping systems?Collaboration -- Community Organizing; Advocacy -- Policy developt & enforcement
Essential services fall under assessment?Monitor health; Diagnose & investigate
Essential services fall under policy development?Inform, educate, empower; Mobilize community partnerships; Develop policies
Essential services fall under assurance?Enforce laws; Link to/Provide care; Assure competent workforce; Evaluate

Public Health Leaders & Theorists

Question Answer
Mary SeacoleSelf-funded trip to Crimea: est. British Hotel @ Balaclava to provide mess-table/comfortable quarters for sick officers
Florence NightingaleUsed mortality stats to show causes (preventable, wounds, accidents/other) to change hygiene standards
Lilian WaldHenry St. Settlement Founder (based on needs of community- food/shelter/clothing/health, arts, vocation/college prep)
Dr. John SnowBroad Street water pump/cholera spread in London – removed handle, deaths declined. Links btwn hygiene & health
Mary BreckenridgeFrontier School of Midwifery (KY) caring for children starts with care of mother
Dorthea DixPenitentiary reform for prisoners, mentally ill. Wrote Memorial to legis Massachusetts. In Civil War era became superintendent of nursing
Margaret SangerReproductive rights to rebel against Comstock Act (“immoral literature”). Opened first BC clinic in Brooklyn
Ignaz SemmelweisLobbied for hand-washing to prevent “child-bed” puerperal fever spread by Strep pyogenes
Urie BronfenbrennerSocio-ecological model - series of environmental systems that influence a child’s development which in turn may change how others respond to them which in turn further influences development (individual, influencers, community, society)
Sigmund FreudPsychosexual theory - personality is determined by age 5 (childhood). 5 stages, if not met fixation can occur
Lev VygotskySocio-cultural cognitive development theory - Importance of social interaction on development of cognition, Child internalizes the info they get from interaction with others
Lawrence KohlbergMoral development theory – Focus on moral-reasoning, how people think about right vs wrong. 3 levels

Family Nursing Theory

Question Answer
What is a family?An open & developing system of interacting personalities with a structure & process enacted in relationships among the individual members, regulated by resources & stressors, and existing within the larger community
Phases of Family visit relationship1. Preinitiation/pre-planning 2. Initial/introductory 3. Working 4. Ending
Motivational interviewingOARS (open-ended questions, Affirmations, Reflections, and Summarizing statements)
Family Needs ModelAssesses and analyzes family needs, family style, family strengths, and family functioning; The nurses assess, diagnose, plan, implement, and evaluate their nursing care for & with families.
Bowen's Family Systems TheoryLevel of Differentiation: A person's ability to separate his/her emotions from thoughts (mindfulness - learn to respond instead of react); Triangle concept: Any 2 person system is unstable, tension develops between them, resulting in triangling in a 3rd person (In periods of calm, the distant position is uncomfortable, In periods of anxiety, the distant position is preferred); Anxiety: The more anxiety that is present, the more likely of an automatic reaction rather than thoughtful actions
Parental attribute/attachments (Ainsworth/strange situationlow anxiety/avoid- secure attach (60%), low anxiety/high avoid-avoidant attach (15%), high anxiety/low avoid-ambivalent attach (15%), high anxiety/avoid-disorganized attach (15%)

Epidemiologic Triangle: Host -> Environment ->Agent

Question Answer
What is communicable disease control dependent onfinding a weak link in the triangle, developing measures that attack/reduce/ eliminate that threat
What are Host factorsthings that effect host resistance (Genetic makeup, age, sex, race, ethnicity, religion, marital status, lifestyle, immunologic state, Personal behavior, co-morbidity)
What are Environmental factorsAll that is external to the host including Physical, Biologic, Social, Cultural
What are Agent factorsInfectivity, Pathogenicity, Virulence, Toxicity, Invasiveness, Antigenicity
How may Community health nurses assist in communicable disease controlhelp identify contacts placed at risk by exposure, monitor persons under treatment/ensure compliance, engage in epidemiological investigations of new diseases/outbreaks of illnesses
What factors contribute to newly emerging/reemerging infectious diseasesFailure to vaccinate, Reduced emphasis on public health, Drug resistance, Crowding (threatens sanitary & other environmental conditions)