3 Inguinal & Urinary

nibbs06's version from 2016-06-19 19:23

Inguinal & Abdominal

Question Answer
The lumbar muscular part of the diaphragm is unique in that itholds the diaphragm against the posterior wall via Arcuate Ligaments & the Right & Left Crura.
Four Surface Landmarks of the Anterolateral WallUmbilicus, Linea Alba, Iliac Crest & Inguinal Ligament
Five Layers of the Anterolateral Wall areskin, subQ (+ 2 layers of fascia. Fatty-Camper & Deep-Scarpa’s), Muscle Layer (3 layers with their aponeurosis + fascia & transversalis fascia), Extraperiotneal Fat & Parietal Peritoneum.
The two layered flexor retinaculum of the hip joint is made by theInguinal ligament & Iliopubic tract.
Inguinal Canal in males containsspermatic cord
Inguinal Canal in females containsround ligament of the uterus
Deep ring of inguinal canal is formed in thetransversalis fascia
The cremaster muscle isthe muscle layer of the inguinal canal. It comes from the internal oblique muscle.
The superficial rings aponeurosis comes from theaponeurosis of the external oblique muscle.
The external spermatic fascia in the male is formed from theexternal oblique aponeurosis (superficial ring).
Hasselbach’s Triangle is bordered byRectus Abdominis, Inferior Epigastric Artery/Vein & Inguinal Ligament.
A hernia that lies medial to inferior epigastric artery is aDirect Inguinal Hernia (@superficial ring in triangle)
A hernia that is lateral to the inferior epigastric artery is aIndirect Inguinal Hernia (Deep ring to superficial)
If a hernia enters into the scrotum, it is most likelyan indirect inguinal hernia
A femoral hernia isthe protrusion of peritoneum (w/ or w/out abdopelvic contents) thru the Femoral Canal.
The Arcuate ligaments (med/lat) of the diaphragm are formed fromthe Psoas & Quadratus Lumborum fascia.
What interdigitates with serratus anterior?External Abdominal Oblique Muscles.
Anterior rectus sheath above Arcuate line isAponeurosis’ of Ext. Oblique & Anterior layer of Int. Oblique
Anterior rectus sheath below Arcuate line isAponeurosis’ of the Ext Oblique, ALL of the Aponeurosis Layers of Internal Oblique & Transverses Abdominis
Posterior rectus sheath above Arcuate line isAponeurosis’ of Int. Oblique (post layers) & Transversus abdominis, and transversalis fascia
Posterior rectus sheath below Arcuate line isonly transversalis fascia
The peritoneal cavity is subdivided into thegreater sac and the omental bursa (lesser sac).
What is the cavity of the peritoneal?the potential space between the parietal & visceral layers
The Omental Foramen isAn opening where the Omental Bursa (lesser sac) is continuous with the Greater Sac
The omenta consists of two layers of peritoneum known as theGreater Omentum & Lesser Omentum
The greater omentum is attached @greater curvature (stomach) and 1st part of the duodenum & hangs over the transverse colon and the jejunum/ileum coils.
What are the 2 arteries & veins of the greater omentum?Right & Left Gastro-Omental Vessels
The lesser omentum is attached @lesser curvature (stomach), 1st part of duodenum & goes to the inferior surface of the liver
The greater omentum is derived from thedorsal mesentery
The lesser omentum is derived from theventral mesentery
What two ligaments divide the lesser omentum?Hepatogastric (medial; passes b/ween stomach & liver) & Hepatoduodenal (lateral; passes between duodenum & liver)
The Hepatoduodenal ligament serves as the anterior border of theOmental Foramen
Mesenteries areperitoneal folds that attach viscera to the posterior abdominal wall
The Mesentery Proper isresponsible for holding the jejunum & ileum to the posterior abdominal wall
Transverse Mesocolon connects thetransverse colon to the posterior abdominal wall
Sigmoidal Mesocolon connects thesigmoidal colon to the posterior abdominal wall
The LEFT kidney is connected to the spleen via thesplenorenal ligament
The stomach is connected to the diaphragm via thegastrophrenic ligament

Urinary System (28)

Question Answer
Where are the kidney’s are located, relative to the ribs?Anterior to 11th & 12th Rib.
Which kidney sits lower than the other?Right
The renal capsule covers thecortex
The artery, vein and ureter enter the kidney at therenal sinus
Each renal pyramid is separated by arenal column
Each renal pyramid ends at a round point called the _________ at a small depression called the ___renal papilla + minor calyx
The renal pelvis is formed bynumerous major calyces
This urine collecting site that moves urine to the ureter is calledthe renal pelvis
The order of urine out of the body is (from collecting tube)collecting duct of each renal pyramid converge → Duct of Bellini (Papillary Duct) forms → Renal Papilla → Minor Calyx → Major Calyx → Renal Pelvis → Ureter → Bladder → Urethra
Which nephrons concentrate urine? & Where are they?Juxtamedullary
The Juxtamedullary & cortical nephrons originate where in the cortex?Juxta is inner 1/3 & Cortical is outer 2/3.
Filtration of blood occurs inBowman’s Capsule
The renal corpuscle is made up ofthe glomerulus & Bowman’s Capsule (glomerular capsule)
The inner layer of bowman’s capsule is made up ofPodocytes w/ Pedicles
Solubility to water increases due to the _________ of the glomerulusthe slits in the layer of bowman’s capsule
Between the PCT & DCT, more microvilli are found in thePCT
The collecting duct receives fluid fromthe DCT of MANY nephron’s.
Fluid is drained from the cortex through the collecting ducts & into the medulla, as the collecting ducts travel through aRenal Pyramid
The Duct of Bellini empties into theminor calyx
Where is fluid/filtrate finally considered urine?when it enters the minor calyx
The renal artery is located _________ (anterior, posterior, superior, inferior, dorsal, etc.) to the superior mesenteric arteryinferior
Blood leaves the Peritubular capillaries through theinterlobular veins → Arcuate veins → Interlobar veins
The Renal vein is formed by theInterlobar veins (located between the pyramids)
From the aorta, the order of blood supply isAorta → Renal A. → Interlobar A. → Arcuate A. → Interlobular A. → Afferent a. → Glomerular c. → Efferent a. → Peritubular c.(around tubules) → Interlobular V. → Arcuate V. → Interlobar V. –[converge]—> Renal V. → Inferior Vena Cava.
Which renal vein is shorter?Right; it runs directly backwards towards the kidney
Vessels of which sex structure cross infront of the ureters/psoas major?Testicular or Ovarian vessels
Which layer of the ureters is responsible for propelling urine? & which layer stretches & protects it from damage from urine?middle muscular layer & the inner mucosal layer
Which side of the bladder is covered by peritoneum?Only the superior surface
Urine enters the bladder dorsally viaUreteric Ostia
The most fixed/inferior part of the bladder is theNeck
In males, behind the bladder is theRectum
In females, behind the bladder is thevagina & cervix, which are interposed between the bladder & rectum.
The mucosal lining of the bladder is calledrugae
The trigone isa small triangular area of smooth mucosa on the dorsal bladder wall between the ureteric ostea & bladder outlet (urethra).
The walls of the bladder are made up mostly of thedetrusor muscles
Involuntary opening of the urethral sphincter is controlled by thestretch receptors of the detrusor muscles
3 sections of the male urethra areProstatic, Membranous & Penile/Spongy Urethra.
Urination reflex involves which ANS system?Parasympathetic
What’s the pathway for the reflex distention of the bladder?Stretch receptor (detrusor muscle) activation → signal sent to S2-S4 (micturition center) → parasympathetic motor neuron (of detrusors) activation → contraction of detrusor muscles → Internal Urethral Sphincter relaxation → decreased somatic signaling → External Urethral Sphincter
In voluntary micturition, the stretch receptors send info to thepons & cerebellum, which override the reflex.
The adrenal glands are enclosed in therenal capsule
From the pons/cerebellum, which sacral nerve initiates somatic motor signaling?pudendal nerve
During a urinary reflex, a voluntary response can stop this byincreasing somatic signaling & thus inhibiting the external sphincter reflex.
The adrenal medulla producesEpi & NorEpi
Adrenal cortex producesSteroid hormones