# #3 Four Validities

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2016-02-22 07:38

## Section

Question | Answer |
---|---|

construct validity | how well the operational definition of a variable captures it's conceptural definition. |

statistical validity | the degress to which a study's statistical conclusions are accurate. |

external validity | how well the conclusions drawn from the study apply to other people and situations (generalize.) |

internal validity | how well a study can rule out alternative explanations for the results. |

Question | Answer |
---|---|

construct validity measures | frequency claims, association claims, causal claims. |

statistical significance | the probability that the obtained results were due to chance alone. (p value p<.05.) |

effect size | the strenght/degree of the relationship indicates how meaninful it is in the real worls. |

stastical validaity measures | frequency claims, association claims, causal claims. |

external validity measures | frequency claims, association claims only. |

internal validity measures | causal claims. |

Question | Answer |
---|---|

how can we reduse confounding variables | hold them constant, balance them across conditions, use random assigment. |

random assignment | required that each participant has an equal chance of being in any IV group/level. (participants are put into groups at randoms.) |

what random assigment does | balances individual differences across groups. |

Question | Answer |
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commom types of measurement | self report, observation/behavioral, physiologial (brain scans, biological data.). |

face validity | is it a plausible measure of constact (Can be used to inflence behavior, problem is subjectivity (plausible to you but not to others).) |

content validity | does the operational definition capture all relevant parts (content) of the concept? (depends again of subjectives subjects.) |

criterion validity | is the operation definition consistent with real world outcomes? if strong = high leves of validity. Also known as known group paradigm. |

known groups paradign | does our operational identify differencent between groups we already know are different? |

convergent and divergent validity | is the operational definition specifically and only measuring what we expect? |

divergent validity | aka discriminate validity, does the operation definition correlate with mesures of dissimilar concepts? no associations are expected between measures. |

convergent validity | strong possitibe associations should exist between similar meassures. |

Question | Answer |
---|---|

test-retest realibility | does the test produce the same scores under identical circumstances? (most stdies, self report/physio/observational.) |

interrater realiability | is the operational definition clear enough that different people will come to the same conclusions based on the same data? (critical in observational studies.) |

internal reliability | is each item in our measure assesing the same construct? (surveys/questionnaires.) |

split half realibity | involves splitteing the test in half randomly, then comparing the average scores for the halves. |

cronbach's alpha | computes the average correlation among all the items in the test. |

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