3.2 ATP Energy Currency of the cell

hasanahatesscience's version from 2018-03-31 18:22

Section 1

Question Answer
Adenosine triphosphate consists of 3 partsa nitrogenous base adenine, which is linked to a 5-carbon sugar called ribose, which is linked to a chain of 3 phosphate groups
ATP contains lots of free energy because of its 3 negatively charged phosphate groups, they crowd together and creates a repulsion of their electrons. The repulsion contributes to the weakness of the bond holding the groups together
The bonds of ATP are easily broken by a catalyzed reaction with water HYDROLYSIS. It results in the breaking off of the end phosphate group and the formation of 2 products- ADP plus Pi. releases lots of free energy

Section 2

Question Answer
In energy coupling, ATP can be moved into close contact with a reactant molecule of an endergonic reaction, a chemical reaction that absorbs free energyduring the reaction, the terminal phosphate group breaks away from the ATP and transfers to the reactant molecule. Attaching a phosphate group to another organic molecule is called Phosphorylation. It results in the molecule gaining free energy and becoming more reactive
Energy coupling requires an enzyme to bring the ATP molecule close to the reactant molecule of the endergonic reaction
ATP hydrolysis can be coupled to endergonic reactions in a cell topower many reactions (energy coupling)
Cells regenerate ATP by combining ADP with Pi. If ATP hydrolysis is an exergonic reaction, then the reverse process, ATP synthesis is endergonic.
he ATP cycle couples reactions that release free energy (exergonic)to reactions that require free energy (endergonic)

Section 3

Question Answer
Molecules with a large number of C-H bonds are high energy molecules. Fat molecules have many C-H bonds and are a high energy food source.
Oxidation occurs when an atom or molecule loses electrons to another atomSince O2 has high EN it is an ideal electron acceptor atom in cellular respiration
Reduction is when an atom or molecule gains an electron.
The atom that gains electrons is called the oxidizing agent the one that loses is the reducing agent
During controlled oxidation, cells are able to capture more free energy and produce less waste contained in all the electrons in the C-H bonds is not released suddenly to produce alot of thermal energy.
energy carriersNAD+ is a common high-energy electron carrier molecule in cellular processes, which is reduced to the form NADH. NADH provides a source of energy to drive ATP synthesis.

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