3.1 Metabolism and thermodynamics

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Section 1

Question Answer
The First Law of Thermodynamics the total amount of energy in any closed system is constant. Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can only be converted from one form to another.
Bond EnergyThe amount of chemical potential energy possessed by compounds is less than the amount of chemical possessed by the atoms they contain
Energy is always released when bonds form, free (unbonded) atoms can be considered to have more chemical energy than any compound
Chemical energy contained food must be transformed into into kinetic energy for your muscles to move
Second Law of ThermodynamicThe universe tends towards disorder Entropy: Measure of disorder in the universe Disorder increases, entropy increases Molecules move from more order to less ordered (C6H1206→ CO2+H2O) Solid → Gas
Free EnergyThe amount of energy available to break and form other chemical bonds is called free energy which is energy from a chemical reaction available to do work Heat increases disorder The amount of energy remaining in the product bonds that are capable of doing work (drive other reactions)
Example of exergonic reactionglucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water
Example of endergonic reaction ADP + Pi → ATP
Exergonic Reaction:a chemical reaction that releases free energy; the products have less free energy than the reactants. G value is negative cuz the products have less free energy than the reactants. They can do work cuz they act as a source of free energy. Occurs spontaneously
Endergonic reaction

Section 2

Question Answer
Energy coupling: the transfer of energy from one reaction to another in order to drive the second reaction. In cell’s all endergonic reactions are coupled to exergonic reactions. When combined they have a -G
The sum of all individual reactions is an organism's metabolism In metabolism, individual reactions tend to be part of a metabolic pathway which is a series of sequential reactions in which products of one reaction are used immediately as reactants for the next reaction in the series.