3-1, 3-6, 3-7

mhewett's version from 2016-06-22 22:03

3-1, Section 1.8 Amyloid

Question Answer
What is the structure of amyloid?beta pleated sheet of protein
What is AL and what is it associated with?amyloid light chain; excess light chains are produced in both multiple myeloma and Waldenstrom's
What is AA and what is it associated with?amyloid associated protein; chronic inflammation and aging
What is Abeta and what is it associated with?amyloid beta protein; produced by gene next to Ch 21; deposited in brain causing Alzheimer's
What is amyloidosis?a manifestation of disease where there is deposition of amyloid
Diseases that cause local deposition of amyloid cause?localized amyloidosis
Diseases that cause systemic deposition of amyloid cause?systemic amyloidosis
What is reactive systemic amyloidosis associated with?systemic deposition of AA
What is Alzheimer's disease considered to be?a type of localized amyloidosis

3-6 Session 3 Prep Questions

Question Answer
What are the 2 major etiologic agents for lobar pneumonia?Klebsiella pneumonia, Strep pneumonia
Name the 4 types of lung carcinoma1. Adenocarcinoma
2. Squamous cell
3. Small cell
4. Large cell
Hematuria and RBC casts are usually indicative of what type of general classification of glomerulonephritis?nephritic syndrome
What is the most common nephrotic syndrome in children?Minimal change disease
What are the three components of the staghorn renal calculus? Is it a result of infectious agents, cancer, or gout?Infectious agents
1. Magnesium
2. Ammonium
3. Phosphate
What is the causative agent of syphilis? What is the DOC for the treatment of syphilis?Treponema pallidum
DOC: Pen G
Which type of testicular germ cell tumor is characterized by very high production of AFP? Which type of ovarian germ cell tumor shares the same characteristic?Yolk sac tumor, Endodermal sinus tumor
What type of ovarian tumor is characterized by cysts lined with ciliated epithelium?Serous tumor (an epithelial malignancy (carcinoma) that arises from the lining of a cavity that produces a serum-like fluid (a serous cavity)).
What are the 5 major risk factors for endometrial carcinoma?1. >40 y/0
2. Early menarchy
3. Late menopause
4. Null parity
5. Obesity
What are the 5 major risk factors for breast cancer?1. >40 y/0
2. Early menarche
3. Late menopause
4. Null parity
5. Obesity
Koplik's spots in the mouth indicate what disease?Measles (Rubeola)
What type of esophageal diverticulum involves all layers of the esophagus?True esophageal diverticulum
What type of esophageal diverticulum involves only the mucosal layer?False diverticulum (aka pulsion, Zenker's)
What do cloxacillin, oxacillin, and methicillin have in common with respect to their particularly good ability to destroy certain pathogens?B-lactamase resistant
What generation of cephalosporins are cefamandole and cefoxitin?2nd generation
What type of gastritis does Helicobacter pylori cause, and why must it be treated ASAP?Gastritis type B; Risk of carcinoma
What is the risk of develping colon cancer if one has familial polyposis? if one has Gardner's disease?Almost 100%
If a patient presents with lots of abdominal pain, very little or no blood in the stool, and skip lesions of the ileum or radiographic inquiry, from what disease would be most likely be suffering?Crohn's Disease
What are the 3 components of Charcot's triad?1.Fever 2. RUQ pain 3. jaundice
What does Charcot's triad indicate in terms of abdominal disease?ascending cholangitis
What is the classification of jaundice if there is high serum unconjugated bilirubin?prehepatic d/t hemolysis
What is the classification of jaundice if there is high conjugated bilirubin?posthepatic
What is the classification of jaundice if there is high unconjugated and conjugated bilirubin?hepatic d/t hepatitis
Compare the transmission routes and incubation times of Hepatitis A and Hepatitis BHepatitis A: fecal-oral, 2-6 weeks incubation
Hepatitis B: Parenteral, 2-6 months
If a patient's blood tests indicate that she is positive for anti-HBsAg, does that mean that she is currently suffering from an active Hepatitis B infection?NO! already immunized
If a patient presents with cirrhosis, new onset diabetes mellitus, and a bronze skin pigmentation, what disorder would top your list of differential diagnoses?Hemochromatosis is too much iron in the body
Compare osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis in terms of which finger joints each are more likely to affect.OA: DIP ; RA: MCP & PIP
Explain the Rules of Threes relevant to thoracic vertebrae.T1-3: SP is at same level as TP
T4-6: SP 1/2 segment below the corresponding TP
T7-9: SP is 1 level below correspounding TP
T11 = T4-6
T12 = T1-3
Name the false ribs8-12
What is the primary motion of the thoracic spine?Rotation


Question Answer
What ribs primarily move with pump-handle motion? bucket-handle motion? caliper motion?Pump-handle: 1-5
bucket-handle: 6-10
caliper handle: 11-12
Name the attachments of the diaphragm.Body & Discs of L1-3
Xiphoid process
Ribs 6-12 bilateral
In an inhalation dysfunction, what is the key rib?most inferior rib
Prostaglandins and bradykinins share what common feature in terms of their effect on how we feel when we get sick or injured?Pain and vasodilation
What cell type produces IL-1 and what cell type does IL- stimulate?Macrophages stimulate: CD4 T-cells
What inheritance pattern exists for a particular disease if there is no male-to-male transmission and the parents of the sick child are not sick?X-linked recessive
What HLA type do most with nmultiple sclerosis and narcolepsy share?HLA-DR2
What are the VDRL and FTA-ABS test results for an SLE patient? Why?VDRL = (+)--Checks for cardio-lichen antibodies, + for syphilis as weel
FTA-ABS = (-)--test for Trapanedium paladis presence (casitive agent for syphillis)
What clotting pathway does PTT test? PT test? bleeding time?PTT: Intrinsic and common
PT: Extrinsic and common
Bleeding time: platelet function
What does the Coombs test evaluate?Anti-RBC antibodies
What specific type of macromolecule is reliant on folic acid and vitamin B12 for its synthesis? How is this related to anemia?DNA!!--Megloblastic anemia (can't make DNA!)
Auer rods in myeloblasts is evidence of what myeloproliferative disorder?AML
Are aminoglycosides most effective against gram (+), gram (-), or bothGram negatives!
What type of arterialinflammation is associated with hypersensitivity to tobacco?Thromboangitis obliderance(Burgers Dz)
What disease do blue bloaters have? Is it an obstructive or restrictive lung disease?Chronic Broncritis-Obstructive
Name the drugs we studied to be P450 inhibitors.(Some pharmaceuticals can inhibit drug catabolism) Phenylbutazone, Chloraphenicol, Isoniazid, Dicumarol, Cimetidine
What is the antidote for methanol poisening?ethanol
What is the DOC for Strep. pyogenes?Pen G
What is the DOC for Borrelia burgdorferiDoxycycline (2nd: Tetracycline)
In what plane does flexion occur? About what axis?sagittal plane, transverse axis
What cell type is classic in Hodgkin's disease?Reed-sternburg cell
What type of arteriosclerosis is due to high serum calcium? due to malignant hypertension? due to old age? due to high lipid diet?High serum Ca: Munkaburgs
malignant HTN: hyperplastic arterioloschlerosis
old age: hyaline arteriololoschlerosis
high lipid diet: athrosclerosis
If a 3 year old Japanese boy presents with very red hands and soles of the feet, fever, and conjunctivitis, what arteritis does he most likely have?Kawasaki
If the atlas is sidebent left, to what direction is it rotated?right
If C5 is more easily translated to the left when flexed, and there is equal translation right and left when in neutral and not as equal bilateral translation in extension, what is the dysfunction? Restriction?C5NSRRR, C5FRLSL
Draw the alternate and common pathways of the complement cascade!DO IT!

3-7 3a1 cont. Autosomal Recessive diseases

Question Answer
What is the inheritance pattern of polycystic kidney disease (infant type)?autosomal recessive
What is the inheritance pattern of polycystic kidney disease (adult type)?autosomal dominant
How does polycystic kidney disease present in infant type?kidney cysts + liver cysts --> fatal
Where are the cysts present in PKD infant type?renal tubules (almost every single one!) so essentially child has non functional kidneys
How does hemochromatosis start?the small intestine takes up excessive iron, even with normal diet
What happens to excess iron in hemochromatosis patients?excess iron deposits in liver, pancreas, heart, and skin - resulting in cirrhosis, new onset Type I like diabetes, cardiomyopathy, bronze colored skin
What is Chediak Higashi Syndrome?WBCs have abnormal microtubules (so faulty cell movement, lysosomal fusion, and non-functional granules)
What are clinical findings in Chediak Higashi Syndrome?recurrent infections, development of lymphoid cancers, partial albinism (bc melanocytes are afflicted, too), neuropathy (bc neurons are also affected)
What does Bernard Soulier Disease cause?excessive bleeding
What causes Bernard Soulier Disease?d/t lack of GpIb (needed for platelet adhesion to VWF)
What does VWF do?allows clotting to occur by utilizing either platelet binding or binding to factor VIII
What does Glanzmann's thrombasthenia cause?excessive bleeding
What causes Glanzmann's thrombasthenia?d/t lack of GpIIbIIIa (needed for platelet-to-platelet adhesion)

3-7 3a2 Autosomal Dominant Diseases

Question Answer
What happens in familial hypercholesterolemia?abnormal LDL receptor, so unable to adequately process cholesterol in liver, resulting in early, severe atherosclerosis (coronary artery disease, strokes)
What is the primary lipoprotein that carries cholesterol?LDL
What is familial polyposis coli?thousands of colon polyps develop, and colon cancer eventually develops
What is the probability of polyps in the colon becoming cancer?100% !
What age does familial polyposis coli affect?<35 yrs of age
What is spherocytosis?sphere-shaped RBCs due to defect in spectrin
What is spectrin?the molecule responsible for shape of RBCs
What is ultimately the issue of spherocytosis?spleen removes the abnormal RBCs from circulation causing anemia
What is Von Willebrand disease?excessive bleeding due to defect in VWF
What does VWF normally do?normally binds GpIb on platelets and factor VIII in serum
What is the only inherited disorder that results in defects in ability to use both platelets and clotting factors?Von Willebrand disease
What is Ehlers-Danlos syndrome?many forms, all d/t abnormal collagen and/or elastin
How do Ehlers-Danlos patients present?hyperextensible skin and joints
What is the cause of Marfan syndrome?d/t fibrillin deficiency, yielding defective microfibrils (which are critical to connective tissue)
What are clinical findings of Marfan patients?very tall and thin, ectopia lentis (lens dislocation), aortic dilatation/aneurysms, arachnodactyly (long slender fingers/toes), mitral valve prolapse (found in all pts with Marfan bc mitral valve cannot sustain pressures normally exposed to in heart)
What is achondroplasia?decreased chondrocyte proliferation in growth plate of long bones
How do patients with achondroplasia present?short long bones (short limbs and digits)