29. Energetic Processes in Living Organismsrename
yaboiemil's version from 2016-01-25 14:00
Different types of Energy:
|Mechanical energy||Related to Motion of bodies|
|Kinetic Energy||Movement of Bodies|
|Potential Energy||Energy of Position|
|Electric Energy||Energy of an electric charge in an electric field|
|Magnetic Energy||Moving Electric Charges|
|Light Energy||Oscillations of an Electromagnetic Field|
1. Processes around us are the transformation of energy (e.g. chemical into kinetic)
2. Organisms can be classified based on their source of energy:
|Phototrophic Organisms||Energy source from the light of the sun|
|Chemotrphic Organisms||Energy from Oxidation or Reduction of various substances|
3. Organisms can also be classifiec based on their source of carbon
|Autotrophic||carbon from CO2 and H2O using light energy|
|Heterotrophic||Carbon source from the digestion of autotrophic OR other heterotropic organisms|
4. Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and water to create carbs, glucose or starch and oxygen
6CO2 + 6H2O ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2
5.Respiratory Chain: Chemical energy is stored in sugars, fats and proteins. These substances
are then transformed by means of chain and cyclic processes in the body and then react with oxgen.
Products are heat and energy stored in ATP.
6. Both of these processes take place on membrance (Plants on chloroplasts, Animals in Mitochondria)
7. An electrochemical potential is created by the unequal distribution of H+ ions across this membrane.
This is called protonmotive force
8. Cells need energy constantly because they must maintain an electrochemical gradient (which takes
energy). This electrochemical gradient is also used to produce energy. It is a constant cycle that must
be constantly supplied.
9. Without energy, after the critical point, the cell will lose its organisation and cease to function.
It is now dead, and cannot be revived by supply of more nutrients.