29. Energetic Processes in Living Organisms

yaboiemil's version from 2016-01-25 14:00

Different types of Energy:


Question Answer
Mechanical energyRelated to Motion of bodies
Kinetic EnergyMovement of Bodies
Potential EnergyEnergy of Position
Electric EnergyEnergy of an electric charge in an electric field
Magnetic EnergyMoving Electric Charges
Light EnergyOscillations of an Electromagnetic Field


1. Processes around us are the transformation of energy (e.g. chemical into kinetic)
2. Organisms can be classified based on their source of energy:


Question Answer
Phototrophic OrganismsEnergy source from the light of the sun
Chemotrphic OrganismsEnergy from Oxidation or Reduction of various substances


3. Organisms can also be classifiec based on their source of carbon


Question Answer
Autotrophiccarbon from CO2 and H2O using light energy
HeterotrophicCarbon source from the digestion of autotrophic OR other heterotropic organisms


4. Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and water to create carbs, glucose or starch and oxygen
6CO2 + 6H2O ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2


5.Respiratory Chain: Chemical energy is stored in sugars, fats and proteins. These substances
are then transformed by means of chain and cyclic processes in the body and then react with oxgen.
Products are heat and energy stored in ATP.


6. Both of these processes take place on membrance (Plants on chloroplasts, Animals in Mitochondria)


7. An electrochemical potential is created by the unequal distribution of H+ ions across this membrane.
This is called protonmotive force


8. Cells need energy constantly because they must maintain an electrochemical gradient (which takes
energy). This electrochemical gradient is also used to produce energy. It is a constant cycle that must
be constantly supplied.


9. Without energy, after the critical point, the cell will lose its organisation and cease to function.
It is now dead, and cannot be revived by supply of more nutrients.

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