21st exams

baejuhyeoned's version from 2016-10-18 14:28

Section 1

Question Answer
NORTH AMERICAThe third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, and Europe.
1500s people living in North America spoke many different languages, and none of them were written down. 
1600s because so many people had died of smallpox and measles that hardly anyone was left to speak those languages anymore
1700 AD & 1800s Christian missionaries from Europe came to North America to spread Christianity.
SpanishSouthern Part
FrenchMississippi valley to Canada
Norwegian, Swedish or GermanCenter part
EnglishEast Coast
1800sPeople were beginning to write novels, or fictional stories.
1900s to PresentMost of the people, had time to go to school and learn to read and write.
Edgar Allan Poe A literary critic in his time, Boston-born Poe may have been the nation’s first published horror, mystery and science fiction writer.
Edgar Allan Poe wrote eerie, grim and cryptic tales exemplified in his 1839 short story “The Fall of the House of Usher,” 1843 short story “The Tell-Tale Heart” and 1845 poem “The Raven.”
Harper Lee To Kill a Mockingbird is her only published novel, winning the Monroeville, Ala., native the 1961 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction for the best-seller about 1930s race relations in the South.
Mark Twain Known for his witty and satirical prose, and the colloquial dialogue of his characters
Mark Twain : The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, 1876, and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, 1884
Mark Twain the Father of American Literature.
Nationalistic and regional themesSome criticism of Canadian literature has focused on .....
French and British cultureCanadian Literature was mostly influenced by the...
Margaret Atwood Her stories have a Canadian approach—especially to wilderness
Margaret Atwood she writes creative nonfiction and memoir, as well as historical, speculative, science, and dystopian fiction.
Margaret Atwood She wrote “The Edible Woman,” “The Blind Assassin,” which won the Booker Prize, and “Oryx and Crake.”
Robertson Davis wore a variety of “hats” – playwright, reporter, teacher, novelist
Robertson Davis he earned a well-respected literary reputation with an incredible 23 honorary degrees as well as countless literature awards.
Mordecai Richler was known for his honest, witty satire, and is the name
Mordecai Richler works like “The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz” and “Barney’s Version.”
Valeria Luiselli Works such as Faces In The Crowd (2012) and The Story Of My Teeth (2015) have seen her cast as one of the bright lights of contemporary Mexican fiction
Sidewalks by Valeria Luiselli demonstrates the versatility and deft touch of an interesting new literary talent.
Yuri Herrera His first novel to appear in English, Signs Preceding the End of the World, was published to great critical acclaim in 2015 and included in many Best-of-Year lists, including The Guardian‘s Best Fiction and NBC News’s Ten Great Latino Books.
Carmen Boullosa thoughtful and eclectic works such as Leaving Tabasco (2001), and Texas: The Great Theft (2014), have cemented the reputation of a writer considered to be reaching the height of her powers.
Cuban literature began to find its voice in the early 19th century.
Cuban literature is one of the most prolific, relevant and influential literatures in Latin America and all the Spanish-speaking world
PoetryCuban writing began with......
Guillermo Cabrera Infante in the 1950s he used the pseudonym G. Caín
Guillermo Cabrera Infante His parents were founding members of the Cuban Communist Party.
Guillermo Cabrera Infante Holy Smoke (1985, in English, later translated into Spanish as Puro Humo), a humorous "history" of cigars. Mea Cuba (1991, the title means "Cuba Pisses" or "Cuba is Pissing" and is a pun on "Mea Culpa"), political essays
Leonardo Padura Fuentes As of 2007, he is one of Cuba's best known writers internationally.
Leonardo Padura Fuentes He has written movie scripts, two books of short stories and a series of detective novels translated into 10 languages
Jose Marti Cuban national hero and an important figure in Latin American literature.
Jose Marti "Apostle of Cuban Independence.“ of Cuban Lit.
Jose Marti he became a symbol for Cuba's bid for independence against Spain in the 19th century

Section 2

Question Answer
AFRICAThe second largest continent after Asia.
Suez Canal, the Gulf of Suez, and the Red SeaAfrica is separated by...
between 800 and 1,700Languages spoken in Africa
Berber, Kushitic, Semitic, Chad & Coptic5 Major Afro Asiatic languages
KhoisanKhoilkoi of Southern African
Hausa, Peul & WolofNiger Congo Languages
LiteratiLiterature called in Africa
Chinua AchebeHe was best known for his first novel which is called Things Fall Apart. It was written in 1958
Ngugi wa Thiong'oHe has written everything from children's literature to social criticism. Most of his work is in English, but some of it is in Gikuyu
Chimamanda Ngozi AdichieOne of her stories, called That Harmattan Morning, was chosen as joint winner of the BCC Short Story Awards.
Chimamanda Ngozi AdichieShe also won the O. Henry prize for a story called The American Embassy.
Ayi Kwei ArmahHis most well known work is called "Fragments."
Buchi EmechetaHer most well-known novels are: "Second-Class Citizen," "The Bride Price," "The Slave Girl," and "The Joys of Motherhood."
CircaThe first African literature when ancient Egyptians begin using burial texts to accompany their dead
The Memphite Declaration of Deities & Papyrusfirst written accounts of creation
Nelson Manelahe was inaugurated as the first democratically elected State President of South Africa.
Nelson ManelaHe finished his degree and become a Lawyer. In 1952 they opened the first Black Law firm on South Africa.
Nelson ManelaIn 1993, Nelson Mandela was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
Capture the life and struggle of the African peopleThe most notable literary selections of African literature are......
Racial discrimination, apartheid, political conflicts, civil wars, feminism and gender sensitivity, and human rights issuesThe texts for the study of African literature shed light on controversial issues such as ....
NEGRITUDE“A sudden grasp of racial identity and of cultural values and an awareness of the wide discrepancies which existed between the promise of the French system of assimilation and the reality.”
Oral & Written literatureLiterary forms
OratureAlso known as Oral Literature
Mythsusually explain the interrelationships of all things that exist, and provide for the group and its members a necessary sense of their place in relation to their environment and the forces that order events on earth.
Epicsare elaborate literary forms, usually performed only by experts on special occasions. They often recount the heroic exploits of ancestors.
Funeral DirgesDirges, chanted during funeral ceremonies, lament the departed, praise his/her memory, and ask for his/her protection.
Praise poemsare epithets called out in reference to an object in celebration of its outstanding qualities and achievements.
Proverbsare short, witty or ironic statements, metaphorical in its formulation which aim to communicate a response to a particular situation, to offer advice, or to be persuasive.
Ethiopia, Africa & EuropeScholars have identified three waves of literacy in Africa. The first occurred in
Literatures of testimonyThe written literatures, novels, plays, and poems in the 1950s and 60s have been described as
Paris in the Snowswings between assimilation of French, European culture or negritude; intensified by the poet’s catholic piety.
Totem by Leopold Senghorshows the eternal linkage of the living with the dead.
Letters to Martha by Dennis Brutusis the poet’s most famous collection that speaks of the humiliation, the despondency, the indignity of prison life.
Train Journey by Dennis Brutusreflects the poet’s social commitment as he reacts to poverty around him amidst material progress especially and acutely felt by the innocent victims, the children.
Telephone Conversation by Wole Soyinkais the poet’s most anthologized poem that reflects Negritude. The poetic dialogue reveals the landlady’s deep-rooted prejudice against the colored people as the caller plays up on it.
Africa by David Diopis a poem that achieves its impact by a series of climactic sentences and rhetorical questions.
Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebedepicts a vivid picture of Africa before the colonization by the British people.
No Longer at Ease by Chinua Achebeis a sequel to Things Fall Apart. A returning hero fails to cope with disgrace and social pressure.
The Interpreters by Wole Soyinkais about a group of young intellectuals who function as artists
Proverbsa short, traditional saying that expresses some obvious truth or familiar experience
300-1600 ADThe Golden Age
Egypthad a vibrant and strong empire that centered on a polytheistic society
Old GhanaA strong and prosperous kingdom: Mainly traders of salt and gold
Old MaliOvertook Old Ghana for supremacy
SonghaiThe last of the great kingdoms
TimbuktuThe marriage of Songhai and Old Mali empires: Hugely successful kingdom
Parallelismthe fact of being similar in development or form
Epitheta word or phrase that describes a person or thing
Apostrophethe addressing of a usually absent person or a usually personified thing
Polytheisticthe belief that there is more than one god
Monotheismthe belief of there is only one god
Omniscientknowing everything: having unlimited understanding or knowledge
Legenda story from the past that is believed by many people but cannot be proven to be true
Refraina comment or a statement that is often repeated
Folktaletraditional story
Trickstersomeone who tricks or deceives people especially in order to get something
Personificationthe practice of representing a ting or idea as a person in art, literature, etc.
Proverb a popular belief/ saying
Metaphoran object, activity, or idea that is used as a symbol of something else
Alliterationthe use of words that begin with the same sound near one another
Rhymeone of two or more words or phrases that end in the same sounds
Aten and African LiteratureLiterary Devices

Section 3

Question Answer
Selma Lagerlofwrote "The Eclipse"
Selma LagerlofHer works reveal a deep insight into human nature and a mind filled with humor
Bjornstjerne BjornsonWon the 1903 Nobel Prize in Literature laureate
Bjornstjerne BjornsonIn 1857, he puclished Synnove Solbakken, the first of his peasant works
circa 1805-1845Known as Romanticism
Poetic EddaEarliest Norwegian Literature
Hewnin sone & carved in metalDenmark's first literature was written on what platforms?
Leo TolstoyWrote "Where Love is, There God is Also"
Leo TolstoyWas a Russian writer widely regarded as one of the greatest of all novelists
Alexander PushkinGreatest Russian poet & Founder of modern Russian Literature
Alexander PushkinPublished his first poem at the age of 15
Eugene OneginBest known work of Alexander Pushkin
RussiaOne of the most powerful artistic forces in the world
19th centuryGolden Era of Russian Literature
Alexander PushkinCredited with both crystallizing the literary Russian language & introducing a new level of artistry to Russian Literature
Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe"Germany's greatest man of letter and the last true polymath to walk on Earth."
Magnum Opus by GoetheLauded as one of the peaks of world literature
Magnum Opus by Goethetwo part drama FAUST
Prosper MerimeeWrote Mateo Falcone
Prosper MerimeeA famous french writer of highly polished clean cut prose. Almost all his stories are regarded classics
FranceBegan when writers started using dialects that had evolved from the Latin spoken in the parts of Roman Empire
FranceConsidered one of the richest & most varied national literature noted especially for its examination of human society
The Whitler of CremonaAn example of anecdote that brings out the character traits of Antonio as well as those of great Amati
18th CenturyWhere Italian Art experienced revival
19th CenturyAlso called the Napoleonic period was characterized by the rise of Neoclassicism
20th CenturyWas characterized by deep anxiety, a sense of insecurity caused by loss of faith on positivism in science & reason
15th CenturyRise & Confirmation of a spiritual & cultural movement
16th centuryThere was quite a variety of minor literature.
17th centuryPoety decline but wealth of prose
AeniedLatin epic poem written by VIrgil
Historical ProseEarliest written literature was historical prose
SatireDominant form of Roman Literature
VirgilRegarded as the greatest of Roman writers
EuripidesLast of the three great tragedians of classical Athens
EuripidesKnown for having reshaped the formal structure of traditional Attic tragedy by showing strong women characters and intelligent slaves
Sophocles2nd of the 3rd ancient Greek tragedians whose work has survived to present day
AeschylusCalled the theological writer because his plays exude great spiritual & religious fervor
AeschylusFather/founder of tragedy
PrometheusGreatest work of Aeschylus
GreeceThe oldest & most influential literature in the Western world.
Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides & Shakespeare4 world's tragic writers
Pre Homeric &Homeric AgeGreek Literature
RenaissanceAge of Discovery
Classical civilization of Antiquity, Middle Ages & Modern periodDivisions of European history
Flavio BiondoAttributed the idea of periodization of European history
Flavio BiondoCoined the term Middle Ages
Flavio BiondoOne of the first archaeologists
Middle AgesRegarded as Age of epics
Way of life of people, Disorganized world of tribal leaders, raiding groupm gallant chiefsSTAGE OF CIVILIZATION
Nibelungenlied (Germany), The Song of Roland (France), El Cid (Spain) & Divine Comedy (Italy)4 major epics in Europe
PetrarchCreated the concept Dark Age
PetrarchHe saw the Roman Empire & classical period as expression of Italian greatness
Dark Agescivilization rougher & cruder than Homeric Age
Miguel de UnamunoWrote "Domestic Scene"
Miguel de UnamunoOne of the representative Age writers of the Romantic Age
Miguel de UnamunoHis poems are universal in appeal voicing the thoughts of whole mankind in his poems
Fernando de RojasKnown for writing "La Celestina" in 1499
La CelestinaTragic love affair and is seen as the beginning of Spain's literary Renaissance
First & Second centurySpaniards considered this as their Silver Age
JarchasFirst known Spanish literature