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2015 Pharmacology Exam Practice Questions - Part 1

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dermregperth's version from 2016-11-05 02:25

Questions

 

1. Which CYP isoforms are responsible for the greatest amount of drug oxidization
Question Answer
CYP isoforms: 2C19True. (It is thought that >90% of human drug oxidation can be attributed to 6 isoforms. CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C10, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 & 3A4.) (p736)
CYP isoforms: 3A4True. (3A4 = 1/3 to one 1/2 of drug reactions. It is thought that >90% of human drug oxidation can be attributed to 6 isoforms. CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C10, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 & 3A4.) (p736)
CYP isoforms: 2D6True. (2D6 = 1/4 of all reactions. It is thought that >90% of human drug oxidation can be attributed to 6 isoforms. CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C10, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 & 3A4.) (p736)
CYP isoforms: 2C9True. (It is thought that >90% of human drug oxidation can be attributed to 6 isoforms. CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C10, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 & 3A4.) (p736)
CYP isoforms: 1A2True. (It is thought that >90% of human drug oxidation can be attributed to 6 isoforms. CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C10, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 & 3A4.) (p736)
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2. Regarding topical steroids effects:
Question Answer
Topical steroid efffects: It causes vasoconstriction with vasocortinTrue
Topical steroid efffects: Does it cause apoptosis of neutrophilsFalse
Topical steroid efffects: Increased CD4 in epidermisFalse. Cannot find this anywhere. The only reference to CD is: No alteration in CD1a antigen expression (p491)
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3. Regarding griseofulvin:
Question Answer
Griseofulvin: Do men need to avoid fathering children after 6 months of cessationTrue
Griseofulvin: Interferes with OCPTrue
Griseofulvin: Is it active for treatment of M. furfurFalse
Griseofulvin: Is it active for treatment of T. tonsuransTrue
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4. Regarding contraceptives - does it decrease the effectiveness of:
Question Answer
Contraceptives decreased effectiveness by: GriseofulvinTrue. (Increased oestrogen metabolism. Griseofulvin, Rifampin, Tetracyclines & Sulphonamides are implicated for reduced OCP efficacy) (p720)
Contraceptives decreased effectiveness by: RifampicinTrue. (Increased estrogen metabolism and reduced enterohepatic circulation of oestrogen's. Griseofulvin, Rifampin, Tetracyclines & Sulphonamides are implicated for reduced OCP efficacy) (p720)
Contraceptives decreased efficacy by: NSAIDsTrue. (NSAIDs & Azathioprine can lead to contraceptive failure of intrauterine device by unknown mechanism.) (p720)
Contraceptives decreased efficacy by: IsotretinoinFalse
Contraceptives decreased efficacy by: ClindamycinFalse. It is a lincosamide. It is tetracyclines that cause reduced enterohepatic circulation of estrogens and can reduce effectiveness of contraceptives. Griseofulvin, Rifampin, Tetracyclines & Sulphonamides are implicated for reduced OCP efficacy) (p720)
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5. PUVA/8MOP:
Question Answer
PUVA/8MOP: Is absorption of psoralens affected by fatty mealTrue decreases absorption but reduced nausea pg 280
PUVA/8MOP: target wavelength is 320-330nmFalse 320-400 pg 279
PUVA/8MOP: Is it water-solubleFalse. Highly lipophilic pg 280.
PUVA/8MOP: Are they highly protein boundTrue
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6. Regarding psoralens:
Question Answer
Psoralens: Which foods are they naturally occurring in? Are they found in fruits, limes and vegetables?True limes, lemons, figs and parsnips. pg 279.
Psoralens: Does it have a high first pass liver metabolismTrue pg 280
Psoralens: Does it inhibit or induce CYP3A4 metabolismFalse it does not do either. Drugs that induce CYP 450 enzymes enhance and accelerate the metabolism of 8-MOP thereby theoretically reducing the biological effect of PUVD: 8-MOP
Psoralens: Nausea can be a possible side effectTrue pg 280
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7. Regarding sunscreens:
Question Answer
Regarding sunscreens: Does zinc oxide offer superior UVA 1 protection than titanium oxideTrue pg 555.
Sunscreens: Is zinc oxide effective for coverage of soret band of spectrumFalse (Inorganic particulate microsized sunscreens are not very effective in the short-wavelength visible range – the Soret band – necessary for optimal protection of patients with porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) or other porphyria.) (p555)
Sunscreens: Are microsized sunscreen reflectorsTrue but less so than macro size also absorb pg 555.
Sunscreens: Does titanium dioxide/zinc oxide have a white tintTrue
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8. Regarding PDT:
Question Answer
PDT: Does it inhibit p. acnesTrue as P.acnes have been shown to accumulate porphyrins. pg 300.
PDT: Does it increase collagen synthesisTrue. Shown to increase dermal collagen deposition 6 months after PDT pg 302 and also pg 300.
PDT: Does it cause apoptosis/necrosis of malignant cellsTrue (Porphyrins derived from ALA are mainly localised to the vicinity of the mitochondria, which leads to apoptosis or necrosis of malignant cells upon exposure to PDT.) (p300)
PDT: Does it generate oxygen free radicalsTrue Following red or blue light activation porphyrins are excited to a higher energy triplet state which can either emit light or generate reactive oxygen species or free radicals. pg 300.
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9. Regarding alpha hydroxy acids:
Question Answer
Alpha hydroxy acids: Does sodium bicarbonate increase its penetrationFalse. Is used at the end of a peel to neutralise the AHA pg 579.
Alpha hydroxy acids: Does a deep peel extend to the upper-reticular dermis onlyFalse it is capable of extending to the mid-reticular dermis pg 581 see table 49-1 medium-depth peels extend to the papillary dermis and upper reticular dermis
Alpha hydroxy acids: Does a thick white frosting without background erythema indicate a medium depth peelTrue. (Superficial Depth: erythema & blotchy frosting. Medium depth: even white frosting & background erythema. Deep: solid white frost & minimal-no background erythema) (Table 49-2, p580).
Alpha hydroxy acids: Does frosting indicate keratocoagulationTrue indicates protein denaturation of keratin (keratocoagulation) pg 580 table 49-2.
Alpha hydroxy acids: Salicylic acid peels are more lipid soluble than other superficial peels which allows better penetration of comedonesTrue pg 579-80.
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Question Answer
Regarding urea: Can it be compounded as potent as 20%True
Regarding urea: Is it a keratolyticTrue
Urea: Does it increase bacterial proliferationFalse
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11. Regarding topical agents:
Question Answer
Regarding topical agents: Is 20% the maximum for compounding tarTrue
Topical agents: Does topical aluminium chloride have thrombotic propertiesTrue
Topical agents: Does Monsel's solution stain skinTrue it has iron in it
Topical agents: Is silver nitrate an antibacterialTrue
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12. Which of these are humectants?
Question Answer
Is this a humectant: HoneyTrue
Is this a humectant: SorbitolTrue
Is this a humectant: GlycerinTrue
Is this a humectant: White soft paraffinFalse
Is this a humectant: LanolinFalse
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13. Regarding diphenylcyclopropenone/contact sensitizers:
Question Answer
Diphenylcyclopropenone/contact sensitisers: Does DPC induce allergic contact dermatitis in a previously exposed hostsTrue. Exposed - that's it's purpose (i.e. sensitise the patient & then cause a controlled localised reaction to the lesion).
Diphenylcyclopropenone/contact sensitizers: Should contact sensitisers ideally be everywhere in the environmentFalse
Diphenylcyclopropenone/contact sensitizers: Should contact sensitisers ideally have no cross reaction with other compoundsTrue
Diphenylcyclopropenone/contact sensitizers: Does it increase CD4False. (In untreated alopecia areata, the peribulbar infiltrate consists predominantly of CD4+ T cells, with a CD4:CD8 ratio of approximately 4:1.7 With successful treatment with DPC, this ratio changes to 1:1, reflecting a relative increase in peribulbar CD8+ T cells.) (p527)
Diphenylcyclopropenone/contact sensitizers: Does this increase CD1a+ cells in ACD patientsTrue pg 528
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14. Regarding shampoos:
Question Answer
Shampoos: Does ketoconazole persist in hair keratin for up to 72 hours after shampoo applicationTrue
Shampoos: Does selenium make hair more oilyTrue
Shampoos: Ketoconazole is more effective against Pityrosporum than zinc or selenium sulphideTrue (In a comparative study, ketoconazole shampoo suppresses Pityrosporum organisms more effectively than either zinc pyrithione or selenium sulfide shampoo.) (p567)
Shampoos: Does foaming affect the shampoo's penetration to the hair shaftFalse
Shampoos: Is anionic shampoo harsher on hairTrue
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15. Regarding makeup:
Question Answer
Makeup: Does oil in water emulsion change colour with wearTrue
Makeup: Is water in oil emulsion more water resistantTrue see pg 605 table 52-1.
Makeup: Do water free formulations stingFalse not it is oil-free that sting. Pg 605 table 52-1
Makeup: Anhydrous formulations have preservatives/increased risk of contact dermatitisFalse. Anhydrous does not have any preservatives and not mentioned anywhere in the table there is any increased risk of contact dermatitis
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16. Regarding spironolactone:
Question Answer
Spironolactone: Risk of hyperkalaemia with ACE inhibitorsTrue
Spironolactone: Increased absorption with foodTrue food increases the absorption of spironolactone pg 364
Spironolactone: Decreases testosterone significantlyTrue. Testosterone and DHT are reduced. Pg 346
Spironolactone: Bind to hairFalse
Spironolactone: Inhibits alpha reductaseFalse (Spironolactone is an aldosterone antagonist and a relatively weak antiandrogen that blocks the AR and inhibits androgen biosynthesis. Spironolactone does not inhibit 5-α reductase.) (p364)
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