#2 Three Claims

octopirecipes's version from 2016-02-21 23:44


Question Answer
Operational definitionconcrete description of how a variable is to be measured or manipulated in a particular study
ObjectiveThey do not depend on judgment or opinion
Easy to replicateAnother researcher could exactly re-create the measurements
ReliableUnder the same conditions, they produce the same results


Question Answer
Variablescan be measured or manipulated
Measured variables(aka dependent variables; DVs) simply involve recording data or observations
Manipulated variables(aka independent variables; IVs) involve the researcher actively controlling exposure to a particular phenomenon
Participant variables(aka subject variables; SVs) are variables that can’t be manipulated but are treated like IVs


Question Answer
Frequency claimsdescribe the rate or level of a single variable and there is no manipulation (Ex: 10% of Americans say they identify with Homer Simpson.)
Association claimsstate that one variable is associated with (related to) another variable and both are measured (not manipulated) (Ex: Aggression is higher during warmer months)
Causal claimsstate that manipulating one variable is responsible for (causes) changes in another variable (Ex: Alcohol consumption impairs motor skills.)


Question Answer
Frenquency claims are testedusing non-experimental methods. (observation/measurement.)
Association claims are testedusing non-experimental methods. (observation/measurement.)
Causal clraims are testedwith experimental methods. (at least on variable must be manipulated.)


Question Answer
frequency claims characteristicspurely descriptive, goal is to summarice some feature of the data in an asily understood way. (percentaged, frequencies, means etc [descriptive stats].)
association claims characteristicsdepend on correlations, capture the relationship of 2 variables, expressed using correlation coefficient. ) does not indicated causal relationship.
problems with association claims vs. causation3rd variable problems, directionality problem and lack there of one for each variable.
causal claims characteristicscan only be made on experimentation.


Question Answer
3 criteria to establish causationcovariance, temporal precedence, internal validity.
covarianceas variable A changes, variable B changes too.
Temporal PrecedenceVariable A occurs before variable B.
internal validitythere are not alternative explanations for the association between variable A and variable B.

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