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2- Renal Embryology

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omarys's version from 2017-05-23 16:00

Section 1

Question Answer
From the intermediate mesoderm arise-the kidney and the ureters
From the splanchnic mesoderm (& endoderm) arise-the bladder and urethra
In the __th week, this development occurs: int. mesoderm >> ____ _____ >> _____ cord4 ; urogenital ridge ; nephrogenic
From cranial to caudal, and also from earlier to later, the 3 fetal excretory "organs" are:pronephros, mesonephros, metanephros
Of the 3 excretory organs, which is not functional at all?pronephros
The core "skeleton" of the excretory organs is the _____ _____, which empties into the cloacamesonephric duct
The mesonephros develops as follows: int. mesoderm cell cluster >> _____ ______ >> ______ tubulemesonephric vesicle ; mesonephric
The ___ end of the mesonephric tubule (part of the mesonephros) joins the mesonephric duct, which empties into the cloaca.lateral
The ___ end of the mesonephric tubule forms _____'s _____, and together with blood vessels, becomes the ______medial ; Bowman capsule ; corpuscle
The mesonephros develops during the 4th to __th weeks11
BEFORE THE END OF the 4th week, the UPPER part of the ____ completely degenerates, while its lower part (the _____ ______) will remain for the next excretory system to develop.pronephros ; mesonephric duct
memorize

Section 2

Question Answer
The mesonephric DUCT gives rise to which structure that eventually develops into the collecting system?ureteric bud
The metanephros (which will become the permanent kidney) is made up of 2 systems-excretory and collecting (each from a different origin)
The excretory system is derived from the-metanephrogenic blastema
mechanism by which a cell or tissue determine the development and fate of another cell or tissueinduction
The metanephros develops during the __th to __th weeks5 ; 9
The metanephrogenic blastema is derived from the-urogenital ridge (it's just a cluster of cells that's in there, just like in the development of the mesonephros)
The metanephrogenic blastema gives rise to the excretory system, which is all the structures that form thenephron (from Bowman's capsule to the DCT)
During development, the kidneys ___ from the ____ to the abdomenascend ; pelvis
memorize

Section 3

Question Answer
The cloaca (into which the mesonephric duct empties) is divided by the ____ septum into a ventral _____ _____ and a dorsal _____.urorectal ; urogenital sinus ; rectum
The urogenital sinus (endoderm) gives rise to the urinary bladder, the _____ _______ and most of the ____ ______female urethra ; male urethra
In the fetus, the _____ connects the bladder to the umbilicus, and later ______ to become the ______ (or median umbilical ligament).allantois ; constricts ; urachus
The distal part of the male urethra is derived from the surface ectoderm
Its distal parts form the trigone of the bladder mesonephric duct (when said parts are incorporated into dorsal bladder)
Unlike the rest of the bladder, the trigone originates fromintermediate mesoderm (because the mesonephric ducts are of mesodermal origin)
The ureters open into the bladder ______ (in relation to mesonephric ducts)separately
The mesonephric ducts move close together and enter the superior part of the-urethra (NOT bladder)
The bladder is made up of cells from 3 different embryonic origins. They are-the splanchnic mesoderm, intermediate mesoderm (trigone), and endoderm
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Section 4

Question Answer
Bilateral renal agenesis (rare) LEADS TOoligohydramnios
Unilateral renal agenesis (common) IS CAUSED BY absence or early degeneration of the ureteric bud (metanephric mesoderm stays lonely)
an ectopic kidney that results from fusion of the inferior poles of the kidneys before ascenthorseshoe kidney
"Incomplete division of ONE ureteric bud ; complete division of ONE ureteric bud ; formation of TWO ureteric buds" is analogous to-"divided (but single) kidney with bifid ureter ; double kidney with bifid ureter ; supernumerary kidney"
An ectopic ureter results inincontinence
When both kidneys are still in the pelvis and fused togetherDiscoid (pancake) kidney
A horseshoe kidney is usuallyfunctional
About _________% of people have an accessory renal vessel (usually artery)25
memorize

Section 5

Question Answer
Normally, some blood vessels degenerate during the ascent of the kidneys, but if they do not (common and usually asymptomatic)-accessory blood vessels
an accessory blood vessel might lead to which complication?obstruction of the ureter >> enlargement of renal pelvis (hydronephrosis)
They result in renal insufficiency cystic kidney diseases
bilateralpolycystic
mostly unilateralmulticystic
has genetic backgroundpolycystic
is lethal if infant is not dialyzed/kidney transplantedpolycystic
due to abnormal development of loop of Henlemulticystic
cysts usually found focally rather than diffusely throughout the kidneymulticystic
Result/complecation of polycystic kidney diseaseOligohydramnios
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Section 6

Question Answer
a urachal cyst is usuallyasymptomatic
a urachal sinus may open EITHER into the ____ OR at the ______bladder ; umbilicus
a urachal _____ opens both into the bladder and at the umbilicus (persistence of entire lumen) and causes discharge of urine from the umbilicus.fistula
Results from failure of the mesoderm to migrate in between the ectoderm and the endoderm and form muscleexstrophy of the bladder
exstrophy of the bladder is associated with penis anomalies, e.g. ______hemipenis
The adrenal cortex is derived from themesoderm
The adrenal medulla is derived from neural crest cells (cells come from an adjacent sympathetic ganglion)
a deficiency in enzymes necessary for cortisol biosynthesis results in increased levels of _____, which causes overproduction of _______. This is termed ____ _____ ______.ACTH ; androgens ; congenital adrenal hyperplasia
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