#2 pathology of the endocrine system

tigrebright's version from 2015-11-16 14:09

Section 1

Question Answer
thymitisinflammation of the thymus gland
insulinomaa benign tumor of the pancreas that causes hypoglycemia by secreting additional insulin
pancreatitisinflammation of the pancreas
hyperglycemiaan abnormally high concentration of glucose in the blood
polydipsiaexcessive thirst
polyphagiaexcessive hunger
polyuriaexcessive urination
hyperinsulinismthe excessive secretion of insulin into the bloodstream
hypoglycemiaan abnormally low concentration of glucose in the blood
symptoms of hypoglycemianervousness, shakiness,confusion,perspiration or feeling anxious or weak
symptoms of hyperglycemiapolydipsia,polyphagia and polyuria

Section 2

Question Answer
diabetes mellitusa group metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both; described as type 1, type 2 and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults
metabolic syndromea combination of medical conditions, including increased BP, elevated insulin levels,excess body fat around the waist, or abnormal cholesterol levels
type 1 diabetesan autoimmune insulin deficiency disorder caused by the destruction of panacreatic islet beta cells
insulin deficiencythe pancreatic islet beta cells do not secrete enough insulin
symptoms of type 1 diabetespolydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, weight loss, blurred vision, extreme fatigue and slow heatlin
type 2 diabetesan insulin resistance disorder
insulin resistanceinsulin is being produced, but the body does not use it effectively
prediabetesa condition in which the blood sugar level is higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as type 2
symptoms of type 2 diabetesincludes synptoms of type 1 plus recurring infections, irritability and a tingling sensation in the hands and feet
oral hypoglycemicslower blood sugar by causing the pancreas to release more insulin or increasing the body's sensitivity to insulin
glucophagework within the cells to combat insulin resistance and to help insulin let blood sugar in to the cells

Section 3

Question Answer
latent autoimmune diabetes in adultsa condition in which type 1 diabetes develops in adults
latentpresent, but not visible
gestational diabetes mellitusa form of diabetes mellitus that occurs in some pregnancies
diabetic comadiabetic ketoacidosis;caused by very high blood sugar
insulin shockcaused by very low blood sugar
diabetic retinopathyoccurs when diabetes damages the tiny blood vessels in the retina; causes blood to leak in the posterior segment of the eyeball and causes damage that leads to loss of vision
heart diseaseoccurs because excess blood sugar makes the walls of the blood vessels sticky and rigid
kidney diseasecan lead to renal failure because damage to the blood vessels reduces blood flow through the kidneys
peripheral neuropathydamage to the nerves affecting the hands and feet

Section 4

Question Answer
Addison's diseaseoccurs when the adrenal glands DO NOT PRODUCE ENOUGH CORTISOL OR ALDOSTERONE;characterized by chronic, worsening fatigue and muscle weakness, loss of appetite, low blood pressure and weight loss
adrenalitisinflammation of the adrenal glands
aldosteronisman abnormality of the electrolyte balance that is caused by the excessive secretion of aldosterone
Conn's syndromea disorder of the adrenal glands caused byEXCESSIVE PRODUCTION OF ALDOSTERONE;can cause weakness, cramps and convulsions
pheochromocytomaa rare, benign tumor of the adrenal gland that causes too much release of epinephrine and norepinephrine
Cushing's syndromehypercortisolism; caused by the overproduction of cortisol by the body or prolonged use of corticosteroids; symptoms inslude a rounded red "moon" face
hypergonadismexcessive secretion of hormones by the sex glands
hypogonadismdeficient secretions of hormones by the sex glands
gynecomastiaexcessive mammary development in the male; caused by a decrease in testosterone

Recent badges