# 2. Main Features of Particle Dualism

version from 2016-01-20 13:04

## Particle-Wave Dualism

1. Wave–particle duality is the fact that every elementary particle or quantic entity exhibits the properties
of not only particles, but also waves. It addresses the inability of the classical concepts "particle" or
"wave" to fully describe the behavior of quantum-scale objects.
2. There are basic building blocks of the material world: matter as substance and matter as fields.
3. You can express particles as fields though, and fields as particles.
4. You can explain particles as excitations of a field

FieldA region in which each point is affected by a force (e.g. Gravitational Field, where objects in it fall to the ground as they are affected by Gravity)
Tunnel effectWhere a quantum particle tunnels through a potential barrier that it should not be able to surmount.

## 3 Equations for you to remember:

5. Energy of Photons

EEnergy of Photon
hPlanck's Constant (6.62 x 10-34)
fWave Frequency (c/λ)
cWave speed
λWavelength

6. Energy of the Wavelength of an electron (DE BROGLIES EQUATION)

λWavelength
hPlanck's Constant (6.62 x 10^-34)
pmomentum
mMass
EEnergy of Electron

The equation of DE BROGLIE
Begins with lamda = h over p
This is also written to be
lamda = h over root 2mE

This equation shows that the greater the electon energy, the shorter the wavelength

7. Heisenburg Uncertainty Equations

∆runcertainty of position of particle
∆puncertainty of momentum
hPlanck's Constant (6.62 x 10^-34)
∆Euncertainty of energy
∆tuncertainty of time

This equation shows that the more precisely you know the position of the electron,
the less precisely you know its speed - and vice versa.

8. Another fun thing to learn is the Tunnel effect, where a quantum particle tunnels
through a potential barrier that it should not be able to surmount. Why?
9. Because fuck you. The potential barrier is not a real barrier, it is just the magnitude
of the probability that the thing will occur. So a great potential barrier means that it's
super unlikely to happen, but it MIGHT. It COULD. If it wanted to.
10. Schrodingers equation will tell you the probability of where to find a particle. The
solution of this equation will lead to numerical coefficients - QUANTUM NUMBERS.