2 Lumbarplexus, Sacral Plexus, GI & Pelvis

nibbs06's version from 2016-06-20 04:22

Lumbar Plexus (29)

Question Answer
The lumbar plexus is made up ofthe ventral rami of spinal nerves L1 – L4
The 6 nerve branches of the lumbar plexus areiliohypogastric, Ilioinguinal, Genitofemoral, Lateral Femoral Cutaneous, Obturator & Femoral Nerve.
The ventral rami L2, L3 & L4 of the lumbar plexus give usObturator Nerve & Femoral Nerve
Anterior Ramus of L1 will formIliohypogastric & Ilioinguinal Nerves
Anterior Rami of L1 & L2 will converge to formGenitofemoral Nerve
Anterior Rami of L2 & L 3 will converge to formLateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve
The lumbosacral trunk originates fromL4 & L5
The Sacral Plexus is formed fromthe ventral rami of L4, L5, S1-S4
The ventral rami of the sacral plexus lie on the pelvic surface of thePiriformis muscle
The sciatic nerve is made up of two components (name which his dorsal & ventral also)common fibular part(dorsal division) & tibial part(ventral).
The sciatic nerve is formed from the ventral rami ofL4, L5 & S1-S3 on the anterior surface of the Piriformis
The sciatic leaves the pelvic cavity through thegreater sciatic foramen, inferior to Piriformis

Lumbosacral Nerve Supply/Sensory (29.5)

Question Answer
The iliohypogastric nerve suppliesthe internal oblique & Transversus abdominis
Iliohypogastric nerve receives sensory info fromposterior gluteal skin and skin in pubic region
The ilioinguinal nerve suppliesthe internal oblique’s and Transversus abdominis – and skin of upper medial thigh and proximal anterior external genitalia
Ilioinguinal nerve receives sensory info fromskin of upper medial thigh and proximal anterior external genitalia.
The genitofemoral nerves suppliesgenital branch supplies creamaster muscle in the male
The genitofemoral nerves receives info fromGenital branch – the skin of anterior external genitalia. Femoral branch – skin of upper anterior thigh.
The Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve receives sensory info fromthe skin on anterior and lateral thigh, down to the knee
The Obturator nerve suppliesmuscles in the medial thigh
The femoral nerve suppliesmuscles in the anterior thigh
The femoral nerve receives sensory info fromskin on anterior thigh & medial surface of the leg

Gastrointestinal System(20)

Question Answer
The foregut blood supply comes from theCeliac Trunk (stomach, liver, pancreas, spleen)
The Superior Mesenteric Artery supplies blood from themidgut(after the duodenal papilla) to the end of the first 2/3 of the transverse colon
The Inferior Mesenteric Artery supplies blood from thehindgut through the upper anal canal
Blood supply from the small intestine, through 2/3 of the transverse colon, comes fromSuperior Mesenteric Artery
The superior mesenteric arteries in the small intestine form theJejuneal & Ileal Arteries
The Jejuneal & Ileal arteries are unique in that theyloop (anastomose) in “arcades”
Straight arteriesextend directly from arcades to the walls of the small intestine
The vessel that collects blood with absorbed nutrients and carries it to the liver for processing/storage/detoxification is theHepatic Portal Vein
From the liver, blood returns to the systemic circulation viaHepatic Veins, into the inferior vena cava.
Sympathetic innervation of the GI tract arises fromsympathetic trunks
Parasympathetic innervation of the GI tract is from the (2)the vagus nerve (foregut & midgut) & the pelvic splanchnic nerve (hindgut)
The foregut is fromthe oral cavity to the entry of the bile duct into the duodenum (duodenal papilla)
The midgut region is fromthe entryway of the bile duct into the duodenum, to the proximal 2/3 of the transverse colon
The hindgut region is fromthe distal 1/3 of the transverse colon, to the pectinate line of the anal canal
The posterior 1/3 of tongue is innervated by _________ for _________CN-9 for both taste & general sensation
The muscles of the tongue are innervated byHypoglossal Nerve (CN-12)
The anterior 2/3 of the tongue is innervated by _________ for general sensations & _________ for tasteCN-V3 for general sensation & CN7(facial) for taste.
The posterior tongue lies within theoropharynx
The palates separate the oral cavity from thenasal cavity & the nasopharynx
The soft palate ends posteriorly as theuvula
Food cannot move into the nasal cavity due tothe uvula of the soft palate being held against the pharynx.
The enzyme ___ begins digestion of starchesSalivary Amylase
All of the salivary glands are innervated by _________, except for _________, which is innervated by _________CN7 innervates Submandibular + Sublingual glands & CN9 (glossopharyngeal) innervates Parotid

Gastrointestinal System 20(pt 2)

Question Answer
The chief function of the stomach isenzymatic digestion
The area of the stomach where the esophagus and stomach meet is called thecardia
The dilated superior part of the stomach (related to the left dome of the diaphragm) is theFundus
The superior “dip”/notch in the stomach, is called theCardiac Notch
The body of the stomach lies between thefundus and pyloric antrum
The pyloric antrum isthe widened funnel shaped area that leads into the pyloric canal (narrow part).
The thickened distal region of the pyloric canal forms thePyloric Sphincter, which controls discharge of stomach contents through the pyloric orifice into the duodenum
The concave border of the stomach is called theLesser Curvature
The convex border of the stomach is called theGreater Curvature
Plicae Circulares areshelf-like folds that are formed from modified version of the mucosa & Submucosa.
What’s the only part of the small intestine that is not suspended by mesentery to move with both gravity and peristalsis?The retroperitoneal part of the duodenum
The shortest, widest and most fixed part of the small intestine is theDuodenum
The duodenum is covered bymesentery for the first 2cm of the superior part & the remaining superior part plus the next two parts are retroperitoneal, where the final limb where it joins the jejunum & becomes intraperitoneal again.
The MAJOR DUODENAL PAPILLA iswhere the pancreatic duct and the common bile duct empty bile and enzymes into their long duodenum; it also marks the end of the foregut!
The largest part of the small intestine isthe Ileum
The part of the large intestine in the lower right quadrant, which has the appendix, is theCecum
The ascending colon runs from the cecum to the right lobe of the liver, where it then becomes theRight Colic Flexure, or Hepatic Flexure.
The Right Colic/Hepatic Flexure is separated from the anterior abdominal wall by theGreater Omentum
The Transverse colon runs across the abdomen and through the left colic flexure, then becoming theDescending Colon.
The descending colon is (peritoneal location)retroperitoneal
Which parts of the large intestine are retroperitoneal?Ascending colon & Descending colon
The part of the intestine that is peritoneal is theTransverse colon
The descending colon and the rectum are linked by thesigmoid portion of the large intestine
The end of teniae coli near the sigmoid colon signifiesthe recto-sigmoid junction (rectum area begins)
The anal canal ends at thePectinate Line

Gastrointestinal System 20(pt 3)

Question Answer
The 4 lobes of the liver areright, left, quadrate & caudate
The Right side of the liver is separated from the left side by thefalciform ligament
The free ends of the falciform ligament is the _________, which is remnant of fetal _________Ligamentum Teres is remnant of Umbilical Vein
The right portal lobe is subdivided intoright, quadrate & caudate lobes
The left lobe is separated from the right by fissures for the _________, ___ & _________Ligamentum teres, Ligamentum venosum (remnant of fetal ductus venosus) & falciform ligament
The ports hepatis isthe "doorway to the liver, which includes the Hepatic portal vein, hepatic artery & hepatic duct
The portal triad is made up of theHepatic Portal Vein, Hepatic Artery & Hepatic Duct.
The majority of the livers venous blood supply comes from theHepatic portal vein
The output blood flow of the liver, occurs via theHepatic Vein (not the hepatic portal vein)
What vessel supplies the liver? And what is it a branch of?Hepatic Artery. It’s a branch of the Celiac Trunk.
At the Gall Bladder, the hepatic duct becomes theBile Duct
The Gall Bladder receives bile from theCommon Hepatic Duct
The Gall Bladder secretes the bile via theCystic Duct
From the Gall Bladder to the intestine, the pathway of bile isthe cystic duct joins w/ the common bile duct to enter the duodenum at the major duodenal papilla.
Which part of the pancreas is responsible for its endocrine & exocrine functions?The tail
The hepatopancreatic ampulla isthe result of the pancreatic duct, merging with the bile duct.
The sphincter of Oddi, is also known as thehepatopancreatic sphincter
The sphincter of Oddi is closed duringperiods between digestion; bile is filling the gall bladder up.
The sphincter of Oddi opens into theMajor Duodenal Papilla in the descending duodenum.
The ligaments of the spleen are called thesplenorenal ligament & the gastrosplenic ligament.
The spleen is attached to the left kidney, via theSplenorenal ligament.
The spleen is attached to the stomach, via theGastrosplenic ligament.
3 splenic functions aremake lymph & plasma cells, find antigen-antibody complexes and removes old RBC’s.
Splenic blood supply starts from the descending aorta →Splenic Artery → Splenic Vein → Inferior Mesenteric Vein → Superior Mesenteric Vein → Portal Vein.

Pelvis (21)

Question Answer
The right and left hip bones are developed from the fusion of 3 bones, theIlium, Ischium & Pubis.
The superior fan-shaped part of the hip bone is theIlium
The Ilium is made up of _________, _________ & _________, & posteriorly where it articulates with the sacrum, it has an _________ & an _________the ala, the body & the iliac crest, and an auricular surface & an iliac tuberosity
The socket for the femur is called theacetabulum
The acetabulum is formed bythe body of the ilium, body of the ischium & the body of the pubis
What is the rim of the fan called?Iliac Crest
The 2 curves of the “fans rims” are called theASIS (Anterior Superior Iliac Spine) & PSIS (Posterior Superior Iliac Spine).
The ilium articulates with the sacrum at thesacro-ilac joint, where it has an auricular surface & an Iliac Tuberosity.
The ischium hasa body, a ramus & a posterioinferior protuberance called the ischial tuberosity.
The ischium forms part of the Obturator foramen via itsramus (also called the ischio-pubic ramus).
The ischial spine is where the _________ joins the _________the ramus joins the body.
The pubis is made up ofthe superior pubic ramus, inferior pubic ramus, body, pubic crest (medial to a knobby process called the pubic tubercle), pectin pubis & the pubic Symphysis.
The ridge along the superior ramus of the pubis is, which runs laterally from the tubercle, is called thepectin pubis.
The fused inferior rami of the pubis and ischium (R & L) meet at the ventral medial line at aPubic Symphysis to form a Pubic Arch.
The 2 ligaments of the pelvic wall are theSacrospinous (smaller) & Sacrotuberous (superficial) Ligaments.
Which pelvic ligament has a lateral attachment at the ischial tuberosity?Sacrotuberous Ligament.
Which foramen is superior the sacrospinous ligament?Greater Sciatic
The Obturator Foramen is formed byIschial Tuberosity, Ischio-Pubic Ramus & Superior Pubic Ramus
What passes through the Obturator canal?Obturator Nerve + Vessels
What divides the greater sciatic foramen into 2 parts?Piriformis
What passes above the Piriformis in the greater sciatic foramen?Superior gluteal nerves + vessels
What passes below the Piriformis in the greater sciatic foramen?Inferior gluteal nerves + vessels, sciatic nerve, pudendal nerve, the internal pudendal vessels, posterior femoral cutaneous nerves, and the nerves to the Obturator internus, quadratus femorus and superior + inferior gemellus muscles.
What exits from the lesser sciatic foramen?pudendal nerve (but it goes back into perineum) & the tendon of the Obturator Internus Muscle.
The muscle of the pelvis that forms a large part of the posterolateral wall of the pelvic cavity is theObturator Internus
Vessels & Nerves passing b/ween the pelvic cavity & the gluteal region run throughthe posterolateral wall of the pelvic cavity
The muscle that makes a 90 degree bend around the ischium between the ischial spine & ischial tuberosity, passes posteriorly, & crosses the hip joint to insert onto the femur isObturator Internus
Levator Ani & the Coccygeus muscles form thePelvic Diaphragm (Pelvic Floor); support the abdominal viscera