2. Exercise psy 3

winniesmith2's version from 2018-02-25 11:37

Section 1

Question Answer
What are the principles of individuality • Not all people / athletes are created equal • Genetics affects performance • Variations in cell growth rates, metabolism, and cardiorespiratory and neuroendocrine regulation -> high vs low responders
What are the principles of specificity?• Exercise adaptations specific to mode and intensity of training • Training programme must stress most relevant physiological systems for given sport • Training adaptations highly specific to type of activity, training volume, and intensity
What is the principle of reversibility use it or lose it, loose enzymes and capacity to store glycogen and muscle strength.
What are the principles of progressive overload • Need to increase demands on body to make further improvements • Muscle overload: muscles must be loaded beyond “normal” loading for improvement (=overreaching: decrement, then benefit) • Progressive training: as strength increases, resistance/repetitions must increase to further increase strength

Section 2

Question Answer
Signs of overtraining • General fatigue, loss of strength, coordination, exercise capacity • Loss of appetite • Weight loss • Sleep and emotional disturbances • Increased / decreased resting heart rate • Hormonal disturbances (e.g., cortisol ↑, testosterone ↓)
what is the principle of variation • Also called principle of periodisation • Systematical changes to one or more variables to keep training challenging – Intensity – Volume – Technique – Tactics – Changing exercise modes • Macrocycles, mesocycles, microcycles
what does taper mean reduction of training load
Describe frequency, duration and intensity leading up to a race Intensity and volume (= frequency x duration) are inversely related – If volume ↑, intensity should ↓ – If intensity ↑, volume should ↓ – Applies to resistance, anaerobic, and aerobic training
What does Intensity ↑ + volume ↑ cause potential negative effects
What is periodisation • Preparation phase: focus on volume • Pre-competition and competition phase: focus on intensity/technique
Periodisation of an elite gymnastperiods of peak intensity are followed by active rest

Section 3

Question Answer
What is tapering reduction in training volume/intensity – Prior to major competition (recovery, healing) – 4 to 28 days (4-14 days for sprinters/cyclists; longer for swimmers) – Most appropriate for infrequent competition. Increases muscular strength (muscles repair, glycogen reserves can be replenished.
What has been associated with the best tapering strategy using progressive, nonlinear tapering designs.
Endurance training- continuous - long, slow distance training – “Just to stay fit” – “safe” – Focus in preparation phase – Maintain endurance during season (e.g., games players)
Endurance training- continuous- more intense continuous endurance training – Around the maximum lactate steady state (“race pace”) – Improve speed – Focus in pre-competition/competition phase
Endurance training- interval • The faster and shorter the interval, the greater the number • Recovery: active or passive • Distance: specific to sport – Games players: 30-200m – 200m sprinter: up to 300-400m – 1500m runner: 400-1500m

Section 4

Question Answer
General principles for resistance training: eccentric training higher forces, important for hypertrophy
General principles for resistance training: specificity what type of muscle work is required by sport?
General principles for resistance training; order – Multi-joint before single-joint – Large muscle groups before small muscle groups – High intensity before low intensity