2.7.urinary system

noammakmal's version from 2015-04-19 12:51


Question Answer
Excretionremove of waste products the body doesn’t need
Lungs (excretion)CO2
Skin (excretion)sweat (water, minerals, lactic acid, urea)
Intestines (excretion)stool
Retroperitonealpertaining to behind the peritoneum
Why Right kidney lower than the left?Because of the liver (pushes it down)

Combining forms & suffixes

Question Answer
Urinary system (combining form)ur/o
Urine (combining form)ur/o, urin/o
Kidney (combining form)nephr/o, ren/o
Bladder (combining form)cyst/o
Ureter (combining form)ureter/o
Urethra (combining form)urethr/o
Pelvis (combining form)pyel/o
glomerulus (combining form)glomerul/o
Stone (combining form / suffix)lith/o ; -lith
downward, dispalcement (suffix)-ptosis
presence of a condition (suffix)-iasis
stoppage / diminution of normal flow (suffix)-stasis
CAT (CT) scan(suffix)-tomography
Surgical opening (suffix)-stomy
Suture (suffix)-rrhaphy
rupture (suffix)-rrhexis
distension, enlargement of a structure (suffix)-ectasia


Question Answer
Calyxa cup shaped structure within an organ
Cortexthe outer layer of an organ or other structure (between the medulla and the capsule)
Medullathe inner most part of an organ
Hilus / hiluma depression or a pit at the part of an organ where vessels and nerves enter and leave
Pelvisthe lower portion of the trunk, or any base-like structure; looks like funnel (pipe with a wide opening and narrow end); urine collects in it before entering the ureters
Pyramidmakes up the medulla
Nephronworking unit of the kidney which filters blood; tube like structure that have capillaries around it
Afferent arterioletaking blood to the glomerulus
Efferent arterioletaking blood from the glomerulus
Reabsorption in the kidneycan vary according the body's needs (absorption in the intestine)
Structure of nephronable exchange materials between blood and nephrons

Route of urine from the kidney outside

Question Answer
Peristalsiswave like contraction
Rugae (sin. ruga)temporary folds in the urinary bladder, allow distention (also in stomach)
Meatusrounded external opening (at the end of the urethra) through which urine leaves the body
Sphincterband of muscle around an opening

Disorders of the urinary system

Question Answer
Nephrologistspecialized in studying the function and in treating disorders of the kidney and urinary system
Urologistspecialized in the urinary system in male and woman and disorders in male reproductive system
Incontinenceinability to hold urine
Nephropathydisease of the kidney
Renal failureresults when too many nephrons are damaged and the kidneys cannot function properly
Impairmentfailure in function
Uremiadisease condition where there is urine in the blood
Acutedisease which runs its course over a short period of time; severe symptoms
chronicdisease which runs its course over a long period of time; less severe symptoms
nephritisinflammation of the kidney
glomerulonephritisinflammation of the glomeruli and the kidney
prolapsedisplacement of an organ
nephroptosis (floating kidneys)prolapse of the kidneys (the kidneys drop down)
calculus (pl. calculi)stone inside the body
nephrolithiasispresence of stones in the kidney
predispositiontendency to suffer from a certain disease
excretedeliminate, expel
fragmentbreak down to little segments
hydronephrosisaccumulation of urine in the kidney. results in distention of the renal pelvis
hydroureteraccumulation of urine in the ureter
retentioninability to release urine
pyelitisinflammation of the renal pelvis
pyelonephritisinflammation of the kidney and the renal pelvis
indwellinginserted permanently
hemodialysistake blood through a machine and separate it from waste
adhesionssticking together, fuse
spasminvoluntary muscle contraction
obstructionblockage, occlusion
renal calculikidney stone


Question Answer
Tuftscluster, group of something
Incontinencyinability to control urination
Nocturiafrequent, excessive urination at night
Oliguriascanty urination
Scantylimited in amount
Pyelolithotomysurgical incision in the renal pelvis in order to remove stones
Nephrolysisfreeing of the kidney from adhesion
Renal agenesisabsence of one kidney at birth
Uremiaaccumulation of waste product in blood
Hematuriablood in urine
Pyuriapus in urine
Cystorrhexisrupture of the bladder
Voided (what happens)urine eventually voided from the bladder
Palpateexamining something by touching
Bulky paravertebral musclesthick muscles near the vertebra
Inaccessiblecannot being reach
Supinelying on back
Pronelying on the abdomen
Lumber regionlower lateral back
Costal marginthe edge of the ribs
Iliac crestthe ridge of the broad flat bone of the pelvis