2.10.sense organs

noammakmal's version from 2015-04-12 17:00

combining form (eye)

Question Answer
eye (combining form)ocul/o, ophthalm/o
cornea (combining form)kerat/o
conjunctiva (combining form)conjunctiv/o
retina (combining form)retin/o
vision (combining form)opt/o, optic/o
eyelids (combining form)blephar/o, palpebr/o
tear (combining form)dacry/o, lacrim/o
measurement (suffix)-metry

Structures of the eye

Question Answer
tunicathe tree distinct layers of the eye (fibrous, vascular, sensory)
fibrous layer (outer most)sclera, cornea and conjunctiva
Sclerathe white of the eye. provide strength
corneatransparent layer. allow light enter the eye
conjunctivacovers the outer layer of the eye and lines the eyelids
vascular layer (= Uvea, middle)choroid, iris and ciliary body
choroidsupplies the eye with blood
irisa pigmented membrane, pupil in the center. regulate the amount of light getting in the eye
ciliary bodymuscle that control the diameter of the lens
Sensory layer (= retina, innermost) rods, cones, macula, fovea
retinalight sensitive membrane
rodslight receptor on the retina which function in dim light, produce black and white vision
coneslight receptor on the retina which function in bright light, produce color vision
maculasensitive structure found in the retina
foveacenter of the macula, where rays of light meet (focus)
acuitysharpness and clearness of sense
optic discwhere the optic nerve and blood vessels enter the eye
Blind spotthe center of the optic disc. there is no rods and cones at this point so there will be no translation of image to the brain
humornormal fluid or gel-like substance
Aqueous humorproduced by ciliary body, found in the anterior portion of the eye. provides nutrients to the lens and maintain intraocular pressure
Vitreous humorfound in the posterior portion of the eye. give the eyeball its shape and keep retina in place
retrobulbarbehind the eye ball
conjugate eye movementcoordinate movement of the eye, so they both are fixed on the same point
orbitthe bony cavity where the eye fits
eyelidsmoveable folds in the skin, protect the front of the eye
lacrimal glandsproduce tears


Question Answer
focusthe point at which ray of light meets
accommodationthe ability of the eye to adjust the curvature of the lens, and focus on objects at different distance
refractionthe bending of light rays by the cornea, lens and humors of the eye
field of visionthe measurement of how far the eyes can see in all directions (without moving the head)
peripheral visionthe area around the point directly in front that is visible without moving the eye
binocular visionthe ability of having two slightly different views (due to the using of both eyes), allowing depth perception (3D vision)

Diseases and disorders of the eye

Question Answer
emmetropiawhen light rays meet at the retina (normal vision)
myopiawhen light rays meet in front of the retina (near sightedness). corrected by biconcave lens
hyperopiawhen light rays meet after the retina (farsightedness). corrected by biconvex lens
concavecurved inward
convexcurved outward
biconvex lenspositive / converging lens
cataractspartial or complete opacities of the lens, impairs vision
opaquecloudy, not clear
intraocularpertaining to within the eye
extraocularoutside the eye
strabismuscross eye
to alignto arrange into line
to deviateto be differ from normal
to hinderto delay
age related macular degeneration (AMD)loss of vision in the center of visual filed because of damage to the retina
wet AMD (neovascular)loss of vision in the center of visual filed because of damage to the retina caused by formation of dmall blood vessels under the macula
dry AMDloss of vision in the center of visual filed because of damage to the retina caused by accumulation of cellular debris between the retina and the choroid
optometristnon medical doctor who test the eye and treat visual disorders by prescribing lenses
ophthalmologistmedical doctor specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the eye
opticianperson who makes optical instruments and lenses
conjunctivitisinflammation of the conjunctiva
keratitisinflammation of the cornea
retinopathyany disease of the retina
optometryact of measuring of vision
dacryolithiasisthe presence of lacrimal calculi

Combining form (ear)

Question Answer
ear (combining form)ot/o
ear drum (combining form )myring/o, tympan/o
hearing (combining form)audi/o
hardening (combining form)scler/o

General (ear)

Question Answer
function of the earhearing and equilibrium (balance)
three major sections of the earexternal, middle and inner ear
inner earlabyrinth (mazelike structure)
meatusa tube shaped opening
auditory ossiclesmalleus, incus and stapes (in order)
ossiclesmall bone
tympanic membraneear drum
stapesstirrup, a loop
oval windowthe entrance to the middle ear
cochleafluid filled snail shaped structure
the organ of Cortithe true organ of earing
auditory nerveacoustic nerve, brances into the cochlear nerve (hearing) and vestibular nerve (balance)

Diseases and disorders of the ear

Question Answer
otorhinolaryngologistthe physician who treats diseases and disorders of the ear
otodyniapain in the ear
otalgiapain in the ear
tinnitussensation of noise, which is heard only by the patient (e.g. buzzing)
otitis mediainflammation of the middle ear
otopyorrheaflow of pus from the ear
myringotomyincision of the eardrum
tympanotomyincision of the eardrum
otosclerosisabnormal hardening of bones of the middle ear
air conductionconduction of sound waves from outside air to the external ear
bone conductionconduction of sound waves to the inner ear through the bones of the skull
Sensorineural conductionconduction of sound waves by sensory nerves. transform of mechanical waves to nerves impulses