18 Bone, Skin, Eye and Hypothalamus

q123456's version from 2016-05-30 14:07


Question Answer
secretory vesicles in nerve terminalskinesin
sarcomereI zone: only actinn presents
H zone: only myosin present
A band: entire length of the myosin filament
Z: actin anchors
M: myosin anchors

Myosin in the H band attaches at the M line
Actin in the I Band attaches at the z line
Achondroplasia AD, FGFR3
osteomalaciaa low ratio of mineral to matrix. low calcium phosphate and elevated PTH
parathyroid hormone: elevated in osteomalacia, unaffected in osteoporosis
osteopetrosisOsteoclasts, too much bone, anemia/cranial nerve compression/fracture
OsteomyelitisMetaphysis, sepsis>>>S aureus, Salmonella in sickle cell disease
Osteoporosisdecreased bone mass and density
Postmenopausal>>>1) estrogen2) RANK3)osteoprotegerin

osteoporosis: a normal ratio of mineral to matrix.
osteomalacia: a low ratio of mineral to matrix. low calcium, and elevated PTH
Osteoarthritisprogressive degeneration of articular CARTILAGE
distal interphalangeal DIP and proximal interphalangeal PIP
Paget disease of the boneparamyxovirus infecton of osteoclasts,
arteriovenous connections>>>high output heart failure, Normal Ca and phosphate, elevated serum AP
initially, bone resorption exceeds bone production so bone volume is reduced, but with time the osteoblastic process exceeds the osteoclastic one, and excess bone is laid down. larger shoes, fractures or compress nerves or blood vessels, hearing loss
Osteogenic sarcomaMetaphysis of distal femur/proximal tibia
The most common primary bone caner
Morning stiffnesspain in the joints that lasts >30 minutes
rheumatid arthritis,
Polymyalgia rheumatic
inflammation joint disordersrheumatoid arthritis, gout, Psoriatic arthritis and lupus
lymphocytes and plasma cells aggregate near and around blood vessels in synovium***not neutrophils KA9-16
***Osteoarthritis: noninflammation
rheumatoid factor (RF)an IgM autoantibody that has specificity for the Fc portion of IgG
metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and PIP joints
rheumatoid factor binds to IgG>>>activated complement>>>C5a>>>neutrophils enter the joint space
Pseumogout, calcium pyrophosphatePositively birfringent under polarized light

(pseumogout=positively) (gout=negative)
goutsmonosodium urate crystals:
needle shaped,
negatively birefringent: yellow when parallel "huang ping", bule when perpendicular to the polarizer
the first metatarsophalangeal joint
Rheumatoid factor (RF) negativeAnkylosing spondylitis
reactive arthritis
psoriatic arthritis,
rheumatoid factor negative arthritis: Parvovirus infection in adult
Ankylosing spondylitisFusion of vertebrae, chest wall movement>>>Nonpulmonary restrictive lung disease
sacroiliac joint and the vertebral column,
morning stiffness
Aortitis with aortic regurgitation
low back pain LIMIT CHEST EXPANSION leading to hypoventilation
rheumatoid factor negative
Reiter syndromearthritis+conjunctivitis. HLA B27
e.g. 29 year old man, swollen and painful knees and toes, low back stiffness, conjunctivitis
shigella, salmonella, Yersinia, chlamydia trachomatis and campylobacter jejuni

***reye syndrome (hepatic failure and acute encephalopathy in children with febrile illness treated with Aspirin)
Psoriatic arthritisHLA B27
Psoriatic arthritis=Psoriasis+inflammatory arthritis
Psoriasis:reddening and itching on elbows and knees
arthritis: DIP joints, RF negative inflammatory arthritis, most similar to rheumatoid arthritis (not Osteoarthritis, osteoarthritis is noninflammation arthritis)
fibromyalgialike ankylosing spondylitis but not.
not only joints, but muscles, tendons, and other soft tissues
Dermatomyositisa dusky RED rash on the face/eyelids/nails/elbows/knees/chest/back.
Muscle weakness and pain is frequent (proximal muscle)


Question Answer
Sjogren syndromeautoimmune destruction of minor salivary glands and lacrimal glands
dry mouth (xerostomia) and dry eyes (keratoCONJUNCTIVITIS)
Pemphigus vulgaris >>>PemphiguSSuperficial
autoantibody directed against desmosomal cadherins.
acantholysis (cell to cell connections)
mortality rate of 5-15% due to secondary infection
Bullous pemphigoid>>>PemphigoiDDeep
At the space between the skin layers epidermis and dermis
Increased IL2 and IFN-r skin lesionsTuberculoid leprosy
Actinic keratosisSquamous cell carcinoma. excessive sun exposure
SpongiosisAbnormal accumulation of fluid in the epidermis,
Eczematous dermatitis
seborrheic keratosesbenign, pigmented epidermal tumors
hyperplasia of the epidermis
pseudo horn cyst formation
associated with gastric carcinoma
acnePustular acne: tetracycline
cystic acne: vitamin A -ISOTRETINOIN
apocrinesmell, in the dermis, secrete membrane bound vesicles into the hair follicles, not functional until puberty


Question Answer
Hypothalamic nucleiventromedial of hypothalamic nuclei: satiety, stimulated by leptin

lateral of hypothalamic nuclei: hunger, inhibited by leptin

anterior of hypothalamic nucle:i heat dissipation>>>hyperthermia

posterior of hypothalamic nuclei: heat conservation>>>hypothermia

arcuate: dopamine/GHRH/gonadotropin

paraventricular: ADH, CRH, Oxytocin, TRH

Supraoptic: ADH, Oxytocin

suprachiasmatic: circadian rhythm regulation


Question Answer
cataractcloudiness in the lens crystalline proteins to change shape >>> aggregate>>> cataract
albinismpink>>>The posterior part of the iris contains a pigmented epithelium that gives the eye its color.
aqueous humorsecreted by the ciliary body into the posterior chamber
passes through the pupil into the anterior chamber
into the scleral venous sinus (canal of Schlemm)
returns it to the venous blood
Retinitis pigmentosadegeneration of the photoreceptors
a loss of night vision>>>a loss of day vision>>the periphery>>>the center
macular degenerationPigment epithelial cells