135 WAYS TO GO APES (pt 1)

cetidafo's version from 2016-03-01 16:33

Section 1

Question Answer
Ionizing radiationenough energy to dislodge electrons from atoms, forming ions; capable of causing cancer (gamma, X-rays, uv)
High Quality Energyorganized & concentrated; can perform useful work (fossil fuel & nuclear)
Low Quality Energydisorganized, dispersed (heat in ocean or air wind, solar)
First Law of Thermodynamicsenergy is neither created nor destroyed, but may be converted from one form to another (Law of Conservation of Energy)
Second Law of Thermodynamicswhen energy is changed from one form to another, some useful energy is always degraded into lower quality energy, usually heat
Natural radioactive decayunstable radioisotopes decay releasing gamma rays, alpha particles, and beta particles
Half-lifethe time it takes for ½ the mass of a radioisotope to decay
Estimate of how long a radioactive isotope must be stored until it decays to a safe levelapproximately 10 half-lives
Nuclear Fissionnuclei of isotopes split apart when struck by neutrons
Nuclear Fusiontwo isotopes of light elements (H) forced together at high temperatures till they fuse to form a heavier nucleus (He). Process is expensive; break-even point not reached yet

Section 2

Question Answer
Ore:a rock that contains a large enough concentration of a mineral making it profitable to mine
Organic fertilizer:slow-acting & long-lasting because the organic remains need time to be decomposed
Best solutions to energy shortage:conservation, increase efficiency, explore alternative energy options
Surface mining:cheaper and can remove more minerals; less hazardous to workers
Humusorganic, dark material remaining after decomposition by microorganisms
Leachingremoval of dissolved materials from soil by water moving downwards
Illuviationdeposit of leached material in lower soil layers (B horizon)
Loamperfect agricultural soil with optimal portions of sand, silt, clay (40%, 40%, 20%)
Conservationallowing the use of resources in a responsible manner
Preservationsetting aside areas and protecting them from human activities
Parts of the hydrologic cycle:evaporation, transpiration, runoff, condensation, precipitation, infiltration

Section 3

Question Answer
Aquifer:any water-bearing layer in the ground
Cone of depression:lowering of the water table around a pumping well
Salt water intrusion:near the coast, over-pumping of groundwater causes saltwater to move into the aquifer
ENSO:El Niño Southern Oscillation, see-sawing of air pressure over the S. Pacific
During an El Niño year:trade winds weaken & warm water sloshed back to SA
During a non El Niño year:easterly trade winds and ocean currents pool warm water in the western Pacific, allowing upwelling of nutrient rich water off the west coast of South America
Effects of El Niño:upwelling decreases disrupting food chains, N U.S. has mild winters,SW U.S. has increased rainfall, less Atlantic hurricanes
Nitrogen fixing:because atmospheric N2 cannot be used directly by plants it must first be converted into ammonia (NH3) by bacteria (rhizobium)
Ammonification:decomposers covert organic waste into ammonia
Nitrification:ammonia (NH3) is converted to nitrate ions (NO3)
Assimilation:inorganic nitrogen is converted into organic molecules such as DNA/amino acids & proteins

Section 4

Question Answer
Denitrification:bacteria convert nitrate (NO3) and nitrite (NO2) back into N2 gas
Phosphorus does not circulate as easily as nitrogen because:it does not exist as a gas, but is released by weathering of phosphate (PO4)3- rocks
Sustainability:the ability to meet the current needs of humanity without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs
How excess phosphorus is added to aquatic ecosystems:runoff of animal wastes, fertilizer, discharge of sewage
Photosynthesis:plants convert atmospheric carbon (CO2) into complex carbohydrates (glucose C6H12O6)
Aerobic respiration:O2-consuming producers, consumers & decomposers break down complex organic compounds & convert C back into CO2
Largest reservoirs of C:carbonate (CO3)2- rocks first, oceans second
Biotic and abiotic:living and nonliving components of an ecosystem
Producer/Autotroph:photosynthetic or chemosynthetic life
Fecal coliform/Enterococcus bacteria:indicator of sewage contamination

Section 5

Question Answer
Energy flow in food webs:only 10% of the usable energy is transferred because usable energy lost as heat (second law); not all biomass is digested and absorbed; predators expend energy to catch prey
Chlorine:good= disinfection of water; bad = forms trihalomethanes
Primary succession:development of communities in a lifeless area not previously inhabited by life or those in which the soil profile is totally destroyed (lava flows); begins with lichen action
Secondary succession:life progresses where soil remains (clear-cut forest, fire)
Cogeneration:using waste heat to make electricity
Mutualism:symbiotic relationship where both partners benefit
Commensalism:symbiotic relationship where one partner benefits & the other is unaffected
Parasitism:relationship in which one partner obtains nutrients at the expense of the host
Biome:large distinct terrestrial region having similar climate, soil, plants & animals
Carrying capacity:the number of individuals that can be sustained in an area
R strategist:reproduce early in life; many small unprotected offspring
K strategist:reproduce late in life; few offspring; care for offspring

Section 6

Question Answer
Positive feedback:when a change in some condition triggers a response that intensifies the changing condition (warmer Earth - snow melts - less sunlight is reflected & more is absorbed, therefore warmer earth)
Negative feedback:when a changing in some condition triggers a response that counteracts the changed condition (warmer earth - more ocean evaporation - more stratus clouds - less sunlight reaches the ground - therefore cooler Earth)
Malthus:said human population cannot continue to increase exponentially; consequences will be war, famine & disease
Doubling time:rule of 70; 70 divided by the percent growth rate
Replacement level fertility:the number of children a couple must have to replace themselves (2.1 in developed countries)
World Population:6½ billion
U.S. Population:300 million
Preindustrial stage:(demographic transition) birth & death rates high, population grows slowly, infant mortality high
Transitional stage:(demographic transition) death rate lower, better health care, population grows fast
Industrial stage:(demographic transition) decline in birth rate, population growth slows
Postindustrial stage:(demographic transition) low birth & death rates

Section 7

Question Answer
Age structure diagrams:broad base = rapid growth; narrow base = negative growth; uniform shape = zero growth
First and second most populated countries:China and India
Most important thing affecting population growth:low status of women
Ways to decrease birth rate:family planning, contraception, economic rewards and penalties
Percent water on earth by type:97.5% seawater, 2.5% freshwater
Salinization of soil:in arid regions, water evaporates leaving salts behind
Ways to conserve water:agriculture = drip/trickle irrigation; industry = recycling; home = use gray water, repair leaks, low flow fixtures
Point vs non point sources:point, from specific location such as a pipe. Non-point, from over an area such as runoff
BOD:biological oxygen demand, amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic decomposers to break down organic materials
Eutrophication:rapid algal growth caused by an excess of nitrates (NO3) and phosphates (PO4)3- in water

Section 8

Question Answer
Hypoxia:when aquatic plants die, the BOD rises as aerobic decomposers break down the plants, the DO drops & the water cannot support life
Minamata Disease:(1932-1968, Japan) mental impairments caused by methylmercury (CH3Hg)+ poisoning
Primary air pollutants:produced by humans & nature (CO,CO2,SOx,NOx, hydrocarbons, particulates)
Natural selection:organisms that possess favorable adaptations pass them onto the next generation
Particulate matter:Source: burning fossil fuels and diesel exhaust Effect: reduces visibility & respiratory irritation Reduction: filtering, electrostatic precipitators, alternative energy)
Nitrogen Oxides (NOx):Source: auto exhaust Effects: acidification of lakes, respiratory irritation, leads to smog & ozone Equation for acid formation: NO + O2 = NO2 + H2O = HNO3 Reduction: catalytic converter
Sulfur oxides (SOx):Source: coal burning Effects: acid deposition, respiratory irritation, damages plants Equation for acid formation: SO2 + O2 = SO3 + H2O = H2SO4 Reduction: scrubbers, burn low sulfur fuel)
Carbon oxides (CO and CO2):Source: auto exhaust, incomplete combustion Effects: CO binds to hemoglobin, reducing blood’s ability to carry O2; CO2 contributes to global warming Reduction: catalytic converter, emission testing, oxygenated fuel, mass transit
Ozone (O3): Formation: secondary pollutant, NO2 + uv = NO + O* O* + O2 = O3, with VOCs (volatile organic compounds) Effects: respiratory irritant, plant damage Reduction: reduce NO and VOC emissions
Radon (Rn):radioactive gas, formed from the decay of uranium (U), causes lung cancer

Section 9

Question Answer
Photochemical smog:formed by chemical reactions involving sunlight (NO, VOC, O*)
Acid deposition:caused by sulfuric and nitric acids (H2SO4, HNO3), resulting in lowered pH of surface waters
Greenhouse gases:Examples: H2O, CO2, O3, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane (CH4). Effect: they trap outgoing infrared (heat) energy, causing Earth to warm
Effects of global warming:rising sealevel (thermal expansion), extreme weather, drought, famine, extinctions
Causes of ozone depletion:CFCs, methyl chloroform or trichloromethane (CHCl3), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), halon (haloalkanes), methyl bromide (CH3Br)— all of which attack stratospheric ozone
Effects of ozone depletion:increased uv, skin cancer, cataracts, decreased plant growth
Love Canal, NY:(1950s +) chemicals buried in old canal; school and homes built over it; caused birth defects and cancer
Main component of municipal solid waste (MSW):paper; most is landfilled
True cost / External costs: harmful environmental side effects that are not reflected in a product’s price
Sanitary landfill problems and solutions:problem = leachate; solution = liner with collection system problem = methane gas; solution = collect gas and burn problem = volume of garbage; solution = compact and reduce

Section 10

Question Answer
Incineration advantages:volume of waste reduced by 90%, and waste heat can be used
Incineration disadvantages:toxic emissions (polyvinyl chloride, dioxins), scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators needed, ash disposal (contains heavy metals)
Best way to solve waste problem:reduce the amounts of waste at the source
Keystone species:species whose role in an ecosystem are more important than others, such as a sea otter
Indicator species:species that serve as early warnings that an ecosystem is being damaged ex trout
Characteristics of endangered species:small range, large territory, or live on an island
In natural ecosystems, methods which control 50-90% of pests:predators, diseases, parasites
Major insecticide groups (and examples):chlorinated hydrocarbons (DDT); organophosphates (malathion); carbamates (aldicarb)
Pesticide pros:saves lives from insect-transmitted disease, increases food supply, increases profits for farmers
Pesticide cons:genetic resistance, ecosystem imbalance, pesticide treadmill, persistence, bioaccumulation, biological magnification

Section 11

Question Answer
Natural pest control:better agricultural practices, genetically resistant plants, natural enemies, biopesticides, sex attractants
Electricity generation methods:using steam from water boiled by fossils fuels or nuclear reactions; falling water to turn a turbine to power a generator
Petroleum formation:microscopic aquatic organisms in sediments converted by heat and pressure into a mixture of hydrocarbons
Pros of petroleum:relatively cheap, easily transported, high-quality energy
Cons of petroleum:reserves will be depleted soon; pollution during drilling, transport and refining; burning makes CO2
Steps in coal formation:peat, lignite, bituminous, anthracite
Major parts of a nuclear reactor:core, control rods, steam generator, turbine, containment building
Two most serious nuclear accidents:Chernobyl,Ukraine (1986) and Three Mile Island, PA (1979)
Alternate energy sources:wind, solar, waves, biomass, geothermal, fuel cells
LD50 (LD-50, LD50):the amount of a chemical that kills 50% of the animals in a test population

Section 12

Question Answer
Mutagen; Teratogen; Carcinogen:(in order) causes hereditary changes through mutations; causes fetus deformities; causes cancer
Endangered species:a group of organisms in danger of becoming extinct if the situation is not improved; population numbers have dropped below the critical number of organisms; North spotted owl, Arctic polar bear, many others…
Invasive/Alien/Exotic species:non-native species to an area; often thrive and disrupt the ecosystem balance
The Tragedy of the Commons:(1968 paper by ecologist Garret Hardin) global commons such as atmosphere and oceans are used by all and owned by none
Volcano and Earthquake occurrence:at plate boundaries (divergent= spreading, mid-ocean ridges) (convergent= trenches) (transform= sliding, San Andreas)
Sources of mercury:burning coal, compact fluorescent bulbs
Major source of sulfur:burning coal
Threshold dose:the maximum dose that has no measurable effect
Surface Mining Control & Reclamation Act:(1977) requires coal strip mines to reclaim the land
Madrid Protocol:(1991) Suspension of mineral exploration (mining) for 50 years in Antarctica

Section 13

Question Answer
Safe Drinking Water Act:(SDWA, 1974) set maximum contaminant levels for pollutants in drinking water that may have adverse effects on human health
Clean Water Act:(CWA, 1972) set maximum permissible amounts of water pollutants that can be discharged into waterways; aims to make surface waters swimmable and fishable
Ocean Dumping Ban Act:(1988) bans ocean dumping of sewage sludge and industrial waste in the ocean
Clean Air Act:(CAA, 1970) set emission standards for cars and limits for release of air pollutants
Kyoto Protocol:(2005) controlling global warming by setting greenhouse gas emissions targets for developed countries
Montreal Protocol:(1987) phase-out of ozone depleting substances

Section 14