1190- Respiratory

taylormaloney's version from 2016-03-15 04:37

Section 1

Question Answer
What are the 3 Components to Respiration?Pulmonary Ventilation, External Respiration, Internal Respiration
What is Pulmonary Respiration?Exchange of air between atmosphere and alveoli of lungs.
What force drives Pulmonary Respiration?Air Pressure VS Alveolar Pressure.
Describe pressure differences during inhalation/exhalation, and at rest.At rest- Pressure =, Inhalation- Air Pressure Greater than Alveolar Pressure, Exhalation- Alveolar Pressure Greater than Air Pressure.
What is the correlation between Surface Tension of Alveolar Fluid to Pulmonary Ventilation?Surface Tension ( alveoli assumes smallest diameter possible), must be overcome to expand lungs and must be present for lung elastic recoil.
What is Surfactant and what is it's purpose?Surfactant is a product of Septal Cells in alveolar walls. It allows alteration of surface tension in alveoli and prevents their collapse following expiration.
What is the correlation between Lung Compliance and Pulmonary Ventilation?Lung Compliance is the amount of effort required to stretch the lungs and chest wall.
What are the two major factors of Lung Compliance?Elasticity and Surface Tension.
What is the correlation between Airway Resistance and Pulmonary Ventilation?An increase in Sympathetic Nervous Tone = decrease in airway resistance.

Section 2

Question Answer
What is the name of the tool used to measure volume of air ventilated and the respiratory rate. What is the Charting of this information called?Spirometer, Spirogram
Define Tidal Volume.Volume of Air inhaled/exhaled in one breath. ( Approx 500mL at rest)
Define Inspiratory Reserve Volume.Max air that can be inhaled after normal breath.
Define Expiratory Reserve Volume.Max air that can be exhaled after normal breath.
Define Residual Volume.Volume remaining after forced exhalation.
Define Inspiratory Capacity.(Tidal Volume + Inspiratory Reserve)- Max Volume inspired after normal expiration.
Define Functional Residual Capactiy.(Expiratory Reserve Volume + Residual Volume)- Air remaining in lungs after normal expiration.
Define Vital Capacity.(Tidal Volume + Inspiratory Reserve + Expiratory Reserve)- Max expired following Max inspiration.
Define Total Lung Capacity.(Vital Capacity + Residual Volume)- Max amount of air in lungs.
Define FORCED Vital Capacity.Max expired after Max inspired forcefully.
Define FORCED Expiratory Volume in 1 Sec.Volume of air expired forcefully in the 1st second w/ max effort following max inhalation.

Section 3

Question Answer
What are the 3 major respiratory centers?Dorsal Respiratory Group, Ventral Respiratory Group, and Pontine Respiratory Group.
What functions are served by the DRG?Establish normal quiet breathing, forceful inhalation, and stimulation of diaphragm, external intercostals.
What functions are served by the VRG?Forceful inhalation and exhalation, stimulation of accessory breathing muscles.
What functions are served by the PRG?Send Nl to DRG to trigger exhalation, helps adjust breath frequency.

Section 4

Question Answer
What are the two major events in the exchange of CO2 and O2?External Respiration and Internal Respiration.
What are the two major blood circulations in the exchange of CO2 and O2?Pulmonary Circulation, Systemic Circulation.
What force drives the exchange of O2 and CO2?Pressure Gradient and Soluability.
How does Pressure and Soluability correlate to the transfer of gasses?O2 and CO2 molecules move from areas of high partial pressure to low partial pressure.
Define Dalton's Law.The total pressure exerted by gaseous mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of each individual component in a gas mixture.
What are the Respiratory Regions in External Respiration?Respiratory Bronchioles -> Alveoli. - Pulmonary capillaries.
What are the Respiratory Regions in Internal Respiration?Systemic Tissue Cells + Systemic Capillaries.
What factors affect external and internal gas exchange?Partial Pressure Differences, Solubility of Gasses, Surface Area available for Gas Exchange, and Diffusion Distance.

Section 5

Question Answer
What are the two major modes of Oxygen Transport?Plasma ( 1.5% ), Hemoglobin (98.5% ).
How many O2 molecules can be carried via 1 Hb Molecules?4.
What factors affect the affinity of Hb for O2?Partial Pressure of Oxygen, Acidity, Partial Pressure of CO2, Temperature.
Define the Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve.Hb saturation is well maintained, helps maintain saturation levels in hypoxic situations. ( High altitude, cardiac/pulmonary diseases).
Explain Acidity's Relationship to Hb saturation.The higher the acidity, lower affinity of Hb for O2, causes increase in unloading of O2 from Hb. ( Vice Versa)
Explain PCO2's Relationship to Hb saturation.The higher the PCO2, the lower the affinity of Hb for O2, causes increase in unloading of O2. (Vice Versa).
Explain Temperature's Relationship to Hb saturation.The higher the temperature, the lower the affinity of Hb for O2, causes increase in unloading of O2. ( Vice Versa)
What is the comparison of Adults vs Fetus when relating to O2 Affinity (Hemoglobin)Fetus' carry 30% more O2 than an adult.

Section 6

Question Answer
What are the three major modes of Carbon Dioxide Transport?Blood Plasma ( 7% ), Carbaminohemoglobin ( 23% ), Bicarbonate Ions ( 70%).
What clinical connection would "Bright Red Lips and Mouth" relate to? How would it be treated?Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. Administer 100% O2.
What is an interesting fact about CO2 and its relation to hemoglobin?CO2 's affinity for hemoglobin is approx 200x the affinity to O2.
What clinical connection would " SMT spasms, Increase in Mucous Secretion, Airway Edema " relate to?Asthma. - Chronic Airway Inflammation.
Define COPD.Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Emphysema + Chronic Bronchitis.
What is Emphysema?Destruction of Alveolar Walls, (increase in size, decrease in number). - Loss of surface area for gas transfer, loss of elasticity.
What is Chronic Bronchitis?Overproduction of mucus in lower respiratory areas. Leads to inflammation, fibrosis, and obstruction of airway.
What is Pneumonia?Liquid/Mucous in Lungs. Upper airway infection, dry cough, chest pain, acute inflammation of alveoli.